Abstract

A high-resolution lens-coupled X-ray imaging detector equipped with a thin-layer transparent ceramics scintillator has been developed. The scintillator consists of a 5 μm thick Ce-doped Lu3Al5O12 layer (LuAG:Ce) bonded onto the support substrate of the non-doped LuAG ceramics by using a solid-state diffusion technique. Secondary electron microscopy of the bonded interface indicated that the crystal grains were densely packed without any pores in the optical wavelength scale, indicating a quasi-uniform refractive index across the interface. This guarantees high transparency and minimum reflection, which are essential properties for X-ray imaging detectors. The LuAG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into an X-ray imaging detector coupled with an objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.85 and an optical magnification of 100. The scintillation light was imaged onto a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor image sensor. The effective pixel size on the scintillator plane was 65 nm. X-ray transmission images of 200 nm line-and-space patterns were successfully resolved. The high spatial resolution was demonstrated by X-ray transmission images of large integrated circuits with the wiring patterns clearly visualized.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, H. Yagi, T. Yanagidani, and V. Chani, Opt. Mater. 36, 1926 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Martin and A. Koch, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 180 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Blazek, K.

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blažek, K.

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chani, V.

Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, H. Yagi, T. Yanagidani, and V. Chani, Opt. Mater. 36, 1926 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eikenberry, E. F.

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, H. Yagi, T. Yanagidani, and V. Chani, Opt. Mater. 36, 1926 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Fujimura, H.

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Graafsma, H.

H. Graafsma and T. Martin, Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering (2008), p. 277.

Gruner, S. M.

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hatsui, T.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Hiwada, K.

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Horváth, M.

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Imamura, T.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Irvine, S. C.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Iwata, A.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Je, J. H.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, J. W.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamada, K.

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kameshima, T.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Kaminskii, A. A.

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

Katayama, T.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, N.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kirihara, Y.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Kobayashi, K.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Koch, A.

Kohmura, Y.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kudo, T.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Kwon, N.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mares, J. A.

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martin, T.

T. Martin and A. Koch, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 180 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Graafsma and T. Martin, Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering (2008), p. 277.

Morgan, K. S.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakano, T.

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nejezchleb, K.

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikl, M.

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishino, Y.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohmoto, T.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Omodani, M.

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Ono, S.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

Ozaki, K.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

Paganin, D. M.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pína, L.

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pyo, J.

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raven, C.

Sato, T.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, H.

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Siu, K. K. W.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2000).

Snigirev, A.

Sopko, B.

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spanne, P.

Stanek, C. R.

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takaichi, K.

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, A.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tamasaku, K.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tate, M. W.

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tous, J.

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Touš, J.

J. Touš, M. Horváth, L. Pína, K. Blažek, and B. Sopko, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 591, 264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiyama, A.

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.-I.

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, K.

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yabashi, M.

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
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H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
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H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
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T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

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K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

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J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
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Yamazaki, H.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, H. Yagi, T. Yanagidani, and V. Chani, Opt. Mater. 36, 1926 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

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Yanagitani, T.

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Yokota, Y.

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

Yoshikawa, A.

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
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T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

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AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

T. Kameshima, T. Sato, T. Kudo, S. Ono, K. Ozaki, T. Katayama, T. Hatsui, and M. Yabashi, AIP Conf. Proc. 1741, 040033 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

J. Tous, K. Blazek, M. Nikl, and J. A. Mares, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425, 192017 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

T. Martin and A. Koch, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 180 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yagi, K. Takaichi, K. Hiwada, K.-I. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (2)

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686 (2001).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, Opt. Commun. 283, 216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (2)

Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, H. Yagi, T. Yanagidani, and V. Chani, Opt. Mater. 36, 1926 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, K. Takaichi, K.-I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, Opt. Mater. 29, 1258 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (1)

M. Nikl, A. Yoshikawa, K. Kamada, K. Nejezchleb, C. R. Stanek, J. A. Mares, and K. Blazek, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 59, 47 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. W. Jung, J. S. Lee, N. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. Chang, J. Kim, J. Pyo, Y. Kohmura, Y. Nishino, M. Yamamoto, T. Ishikawa, and J. H. Je, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 093704 (2012).
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SPIE Conf. Proc. (1)

K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, A. Tsuchiyama, and T. Nakano, SPIE Conf. Proc. 4503, 291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

H. Graafsma and T. Martin, Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering (2008), p. 277.

T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, T. Ishikawa, H. Fujimura, H. Shimizu, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), p. 1612.

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T. Hatsui, M. Omodani, T. Kudo, K. Kobayashi, T. Imamura, T. Ohmoto, A. Iwata, S. Ono, Y. Kirihara, and T. Kameshima, Proceedings of the International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW) (2013).

K. Zuiderveld, Graphic Gems IV (Academic Press Professional, San Diego, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of the transparent LuAG:Ce/LuAG composite ceramics. The thickness of the LuAG:Ce and LuAG layers are 5 μm and 1 mm, respectively. (b) Secondary electron micrograph of the LuAG:Ce/LuAG composite ceramics cross section at the region of the bonding interface. The arrows indicate the bonding interface between the LuAG:Ce and LuAG ceramics bulks.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematics of the X-ray imaging experiment setup and optical configuration of the indirect X-ray imaging detector.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), (b), (c) Microradiographs at the areas of 200, 400, and 600 nm line-and-spaces, respectively. (d), (e), (f) Projection profiles at the areas of 200, 400, and 600 nm line-and-spaces, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a), (b) Microradiographs of a tantalum Siemens star pattern acquired at photon energies of 7.3 and 16 keV. (c) MTFs calculated from the microradiograph of a tantalum Siemens star pattern. (d) MTFs around the cutoff region. The arrow A indicates the cutoff frequency of 2650 line pairs/mm ( w c = 189 nm ). The arrow B indicates the diffraction-limited cutoff frequency of the present detector at 3269 line pairs/mm ( w c = 152 nm ). The label m in (c) and (d) indicates the frequency sections without data points (see the text). All the bars in (c) and (d) show the standard errors for the data points.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Designed layout of metal layers (gray) and vias (black) in a CMOS imaging sensor. One pixel with an area of 30 × 30 μm square is shown. (b) Microradiograph for the pixel region shown in (a). (c) Line profile calculated for the image section depicted as a dotted rectangle in (b).

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