Abstract

A versatile and scalable fabrication method for laser-generated focused ultrasound transducers is proposed. The method is based on stamping a coated negative mold onto polydimethylsiloxane, and it can be adapted to include different optical absorbers that are directly transferred or synthesized in situ. Transducers with a range of sizes down to 3 mm in diameter are presented, incorporating two carbonaceous (multiwalled carbon nanoparticles and candle soot nanoparticles) and one plasmonic (gold nanoparticles) optically absorbing component. The fabricated transducers operate at central frequencies in the vicinity of 10 MHz with bandwidths in the range of 15–20 MHz. A transducer with a diameter of 5 mm was found to generate a positive peak pressure greater than 35 MPa in the focal zone with a tight focal spot of 150 μm in lateral width. Ultrasound cavitation on the tip of an optical fiber was demonstrated in water for a transducer with a diameter as small as 3 mm.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2019 (2)

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, H. Zhu, C. Feng, Z. He, W. Dong, and H. Yu, Opt. Lett. 44, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. Li, Z. Guo, G. Li, and S.-L. Chen, Opt. Express 26, 21700 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Z. Guo, and S.-L. Chen, Opt. Express 25, 25023 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

E. J. Alles, S. Noimark, E. Zhang, P. C. Beard, and A. E. Desjardins, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3696 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Chan, T. Hies, and C.-D. Ohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 174102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, Y. Lee, and J. J. Yoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081911(2015).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

X. Zeng and R. J. McGough, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2967(2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Buma, M. Spisar, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 1161 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alles, E. J.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, S. Noimark, E. Zhang, P. C. Beard, and A. E. Desjardins, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3696 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Ashkenazi, S.

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ashworth, M.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baac, H. W.

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Beard, P. C.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, S. Noimark, E. Zhang, P. C. Beard, and A. E. Desjardins, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3696 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bertazzo, S.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowden, N.

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Buma, T.

T. Buma, M. Spisar, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 1161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cai, D.

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carugo, D.

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castellino, M.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, W.

W. Chan, T. Hies, and C.-D. Ohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 174102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.-Y.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-L.

Y. Li, Z. Guo, G. Li, and S.-L. Chen, Opt. Express 26, 21700 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Z. Guo, and S.-L. Chen, Opt. Express 25, 25023 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chester, A. H.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. J.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Colchester, R. J.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Cox, B. T.

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616 (2005).
[Crossref]

Crake, C.

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, A. L.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dayton, P.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

Demirci, H.

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, S. Noimark, E. Zhang, P. C. Beard, and A. E. Desjardins, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3696 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Di, J.

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, W.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, C.

Frampton, J.

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giorcelli, M.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guastella, S.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Ha, K.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hart, A. J.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Heise, H.

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Hies, T.

W. Chan, T. Hies, and C.-D. Ohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 174102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, B.-Y.

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-W.

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huck, W. T.

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jagdale, P.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, G.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-W.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-S.

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuckuk, R.

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Latif, N.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-T.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, Y. Lee, and J. J. Yoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081911(2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

S. H. Lee, Y. Lee, and J. J. Yoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081911(2015).
[Crossref]

Lei, S.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, J.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, H. Zhu, C. Feng, Z. He, W. Dong, and H. Yu, Opt. Lett. 44, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Ling, T.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maneas, E.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, A.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

McGough, R. J.

X. Zeng and R. J. McGough, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2967(2009).
[Crossref]

Neyer, A.

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noimark, S.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, S. Noimark, E. Zhang, P. C. Beard, and A. E. Desjardins, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3696 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

O’Donnell, M.

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Buma, M. Spisar, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 1161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohl, C.-D.

W. Chan, T. Hies, and C.-D. Ohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 174102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ok, J. G.

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ourselin, S.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ou-Yang, J.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Owen, J.

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Papakonstantinou, I.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Parkin, I. P.

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

Parkin, I. V.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Paul, K. E.

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Poduval, R. K.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shahzad, M. I.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shahzad, N.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spisar, M.

T. Buma, M. Spisar, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 1161 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stride, E.

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tagliaferro, A.

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takayama, S.

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Tsolaki, E.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Whitesides, G. M.

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, N.

Wu, Y.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xie, B.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yoh, J. J.

S. H. Lee, Y. Lee, and J. J. Yoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081911(2015).
[Crossref]

Yoon, E.

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Zeng, X.

X. Zeng and R. J. McGough, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2967(2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E.

Zhang, E. Z.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, T.

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

Zhu, J.

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, R. K. Poduval, E. Maneas, E. J. Alles, T. Zhao, E. Z. Zhang, M. Ashworth, E. Tsolaki, A. H. Chester, N. Latif, S. Bertazzo, A. L. David, S. Ourselin, P. C. Beard, I. V. Parkin, I. Papakonstantinou, and A. E. Desjardins, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, H. J. Park, T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, A. J. Hart, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 234104 (2010).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Hsieh, J. Kim, J. Zhu, S. Li, X. Zhang, and X. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021902 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lee, J. G. Ok, L. J. Guo, and H. W. Baac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 104102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093901 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, Y. Lee, and J. J. Yoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081911(2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J.-S. Kim, S. Ashkenazi, S.-W. Huang, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073507 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Bowden, W. T. Huck, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2557 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Chan, T. Hies, and C.-D. Ohl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 174102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. (1)

J. Kim, H.-W. Kim, W.-Y. Chang, W. Huang, X. Jiang, and P. Dayton, IEEE Nanotechnol. Mag. 13, 1300 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

T. Buma, M. Spisar, and M. O’Donnell, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50, 1161 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng and R. J. McGough, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2967(2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

H. W. Baac, J. Frampton, J. G. Ok, S. Takayama, and L. J. Guo, J. Biophoton. 6, 905 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Control. Release (1)

J. Di, J. Kim, Q. Hu, X. Jiang, and Z. Gu, J. Control. Release 220, 592 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. I. Shahzad, M. Giorcelli, N. Shahzad, S. Guastella, M. Castellino, P. Jagdale, and A. Tagliaferro, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 439, 012010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Fan, K. Ha, M. Kim, G. Kang, M. J. Choi, and J. Oh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 07LB10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nano Energy (1)

Z. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yang, J. Li, B. Xie, X. Li, S. Lei, J. Ou-Yang, X. Yang, Q. Zhou, and B. Zhu, Nano Energy 46, 314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. W. Baac, J. G. Ok, A. Maxwell, K.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Chen, A. J. Hart, Z. Xu, E. Yoon, and L. J. Guo, Sci. Rep. 2, 989 (2012).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

T. Lee, W. Luo, Q. Li, H. Demirci, and L. J. Guo, Small 13, 1701555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

D. Carugo, J. Owen, C. Crake, J. Y. Lee, and E. Stride, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41, 1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. J. Alles, J. Heo, S. Noimark, R. J. Colchester, I. P. Parkin, H. W. Baac, and A. E. Desjardins, IEEE IUS (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fabrication process shown schematically, with an optically absorbing layer created with (a) transfer and (b) in situ synthesis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Ultrasound pressure time series generated by two transducers of each type at their foci [two transducers with CSNPs (left), MWCNTs (middle), and AuNPs (right)]. (b) Optical absorption spectra of the materials (c) Power spectra of the A-scans.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical microscopy of transducer cross sections [radius of curvature (Rc), diameter (d)].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Maximum intensity of the transmitted acoustic field measured at 3 mm axially, and the propagated fields ( Rc = 3 mm ; d = 5 mm ). (b) Lateral and elevational extents of the acoustic beam and the normalized peak acoustic amplitude.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Concatenated A-scans displayed as images. [Transducer (CSNPs): Rc = 3 mm and d = 5 mm ; cavitation probabilities (CP)]. (b) A-scans with cavitation and without cavitation ( PE = 5.4 mJ ). (c) Sample A-scan when the PE was 9.6 mJ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Cavitation Probabilities (%) for Two CSNP-Based Transducers with Different Geometries

Metrics