Abstract

Functional retinal imaging, especially of neuronal activity non-invasively in humans, is of tremendous interest. Although the activation of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) could be detected in humans, imaging the function of other retinal neurons had been so far hardly possible. Here, using phase-sensitive full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (FF-SS-OCT), we show simultaneous imaging of the activation in the photoreceptor and ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer (GCL/IPL). The signals from the GCL/IPL are 10-fold smaller than those from the PRC and were detectable only using algorithms for suppression of motion artifacts and pulsatile blood flow in the retinal vessels. FF-SS-OCT with improved phase evaluation algorithms, therefore, allowed us to map functional connections between PRC and GCL/IPL, confirming previous ex vivo results. The demonstrated functional imaging of retinal neuronal layers can be a valuable tool in diagnostics and basic research.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, J. Benedetti, and X. Yao, Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7, 29 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Son, M. Alam, D. Toslak, B. Wang, Y. Lu, and X. Yao, J. Biophoton. 11, e201800089 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. S. J. M. Schallenberg, S. Kramer, G. Anastassiou, K.-P. Steuhl, W. Vilser, and S. Kremmer, Open Ophthalmol. J. 8, 75 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. London, I. Benhar, and M. Schartz, Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9, 44 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 17, 3861 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Berlind, G. K. Pribil, D. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, and H. Arwin, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1249 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Kaur, W. Foulds, and E. Ling, Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 622 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, Vis. Res. 47, 2901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. W. Streilein, Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3, 879 (2003).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

V. Perry, R. Oehler, and A. Cowey, Neuroscience 12, 1101(1984).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

K. Iwasa, I. Tasaki, and R. Gibbons, Science 210, 338 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

B. Hill, E. Schubert, M. Nokes, and R. Michelson, Science 196, 426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Abramoff, M.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alam, M.

T. Son, M. Alam, D. Toslak, B. Wang, Y. Lu, and X. Yao, J. Biophoton. 11, e201800089 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amthor, F. R.

Anastassiou, G.

M. S. J. M. Schallenberg, S. Kramer, G. Anastassiou, K.-P. Steuhl, W. Vilser, and S. Kremmer, Open Ophthalmol. J. 8, 75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arwin, H.

T. Berlind, G. K. Pribil, D. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, and H. Arwin, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1249 (2008).
[Crossref]

Azimipour, M.

Benedetti, J.

Y. Lu, J. Benedetti, and X. Yao, Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7, 29 (2018).
[Crossref]

Benhar, I.

A. London, I. Benhar, and M. Schartz, Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9, 44 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berlind, T.

T. Berlind, G. K. Pribil, D. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, and H. Arwin, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1249 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burns, M. E.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Choi, W.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cowey, A.

V. Perry, R. Oehler, and A. Cowey, Neuroscience 12, 1101(1984).
[Crossref]

Critser, D. B.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Crowell, J. A.

F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
[Crossref]

Curcio, C. A.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, Vis. Res. 47, 2901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dassari, R.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Drasdo, N.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, Vis. Res. 47, 2901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

Erchova, I.

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang-Yen, C.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feld, M.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fergusson, J.

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
[Crossref]

Foulds, W.

C. Kaur, W. Foulds, and E. Ling, Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 622 (2008).
[Crossref]

Franke, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, D.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gibbons, R.

K. Iwasa, I. Tasaki, and R. Gibbons, Science 210, 338 (1980).
[Crossref]

Goswami, M.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hain, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hill, B.

B. Hill, E. Schubert, M. Nokes, and R. Michelson, Science 196, 426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, J. M.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, K.

K. Iwasa, I. Tasaki, and R. Gibbons, Science 210, 338 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kardon, R.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Katholi, C. R.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, Vis. Res. 47, 2901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kaur, C.

C. Kaur, W. Foulds, and E. Ling, Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 622 (2008).
[Crossref]

Keyser, K.

Kolbitsch, C.

R. A. L. T. Schmoll and C. Kolbitsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kramer, S.

M. S. J. M. Schallenberg, S. Kramer, G. Anastassiou, K.-P. Steuhl, W. Vilser, and S. Kremmer, Open Ophthalmol. J. 8, 75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kremmer, S.

M. S. J. M. Schallenberg, S. Kramer, G. Anastassiou, K.-P. Steuhl, W. Vilser, and S. Kremmer, Open Ophthalmol. J. 8, 75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kurokawa, K.

F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lassoued, A.

F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-C.

Li, Y.-G.

Ling, E.

C. Kaur, W. Foulds, and E. Ling, Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 622 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

London, A.

A. London, I. Benhar, and M. Schartz, Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9, 44 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. Benedetti, and X. Yao, Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7, 29 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Son, M. Alam, D. Toslak, B. Wang, Y. Lu, and X. Yao, J. Biophoton. 11, e201800089 (2018).
[Crossref]

Michelson, R.

B. Hill, E. Schubert, M. Nokes, and R. Michelson, Science 196, 426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Migacz, J. V.

Miller, D. T.

F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Millican, C. L.

N. Drasdo, C. L. Millican, C. R. Katholi, and C. A. Curcio, Vis. Res. 47, 2901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morgan, J. E.

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mullins, R. F.

M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, P. T.

P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E2937 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nokes, M.

B. Hill, E. Schubert, M. Nokes, and R. Michelson, Science 196, 426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Oehler, R.

V. Perry, R. Oehler, and A. Cowey, Neuroscience 12, 1101(1984).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. Park, R. Dassari, and M. Feld, Biophys. J. 103, 11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perry, V.

V. Perry, R. Oehler, and A. Cowey, Neuroscience 12, 1101(1984).
[Crossref]

Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pflug, R.

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M. S. J. M. Schallenberg, S. Kramer, G. Anastassiou, K.-P. Steuhl, W. Vilser, and S. Kremmer, Open Ophthalmol. J. 8, 75 (2014).
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M. D. Abràmoff, R. F. Mullins, K. Lee, J. M. Hoffmann, M. Sonka, D. B. Critser, S. F. Stasheff, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3721 (2013).
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J. W. Streilein, Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3, 879 (2003).
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T. Son, M. Alam, D. Toslak, B. Wang, Y. Lu, and X. Yao, J. Biophoton. 11, e201800089 (2018).
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Biophys. J. (1)

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Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. A. L. T. Schmoll and C. Kolbitsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
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J. Biophoton. (1)

T. Son, M. Alam, D. Toslak, B. Wang, Y. Lu, and X. Yao, J. Biophoton. 11, e201800089 (2018).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (5)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13138 (2016).
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P. Zhang, R. J. Zawadzki, M. Goswami, P. T. Nguyen, V. Yarov-Yarovoy, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E2937 (2017).
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F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, A. Lassoued, J. A. Crowell, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 7951 (2019).
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Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
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K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
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C. Kaur, W. Foulds, and E. Ling, Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 622 (2008).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

I. Erchova, A. R. Tumlinson, J. Fergusson, N. White, W. Drexler, F. Sengpiel, and J. E. Morgan, Sci. Rep. 8, 1814 (2018).
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D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
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Science (2)

B. Hill, E. Schubert, M. Nokes, and R. Michelson, Science 196, 426 (1977).
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K. Iwasa, I. Tasaki, and R. Gibbons, Science 210, 338 (1980).
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Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Lu, J. Benedetti, and X. Yao, Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7, 29 (2018).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) B-scan of the retina at 3 mm distance from the center of the macula. Layers used for calculating the phase differences are marked in the B-scan. For the optical path length of the cone and the rod OSs, phase difference of the IS/OS junction (averaged over two voxels), and the COSTs (averaged over two voxels), or the ROSTs (averaged over two voxels) were calculated, respectively. For the optical path length changes in the GCL, the phase differences between the GCL (averaged over seven voxels) and the IPL (blue, averaged over five voxels) were determined. (b) Optical path length changes in the cone (blue) and rod (green) OSs for three measurements and their respective averages (gray). (c) Optical path length changes between GCL and IPL for three different measurements (blue), its average (black) and baseline (gray) showing the change in the background for each measurement. All measurements started at t = 0 and were performed in 3 mm distance from the macula.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. IOS patterns for different positions in the retina. Top row: in 3 mm superior temporal; center row: in 1.3 mm superior temporal; and bottom row: in 0.9 mm temporal from the fovea, as marked in the fundus image (right column). (a) Observed IOS patterns in the OSL and (b) in the GCL. Each pattern was outlined manually. (c) Corresponding edge points in the different layers were linked to generate the connection map (d). An SLO image (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) of the subject is laid underneath. The white and black circles mark 0.8 mm and 3.4 mm from the center of the macula, respectively.

Equations (1)

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Δ = λ 0 Δ ϕ 4 π ,

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