Abstract

There exists an unmet need for an optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivery scheme that is simple, robust, and applicable to general surgical applications. To deliver the beam in a narrow form factor, optical borescopes present an attractive potential solution. We present a method for enabling endoscopic delivery of OCT using a handheld rigid borescope adapted to a low-cost OCT engine. The system reduces the distal profile of the scanner, enabling application of the system in otherwise hard-to-access regions. The clinical potential of this design is demonstrated through real-time quantification of articular cartilage thickness, a primary biomarker of joint health during osteoarthritis. This platform has the potential to enable use of OCT for real-time feedback during arthroscopic surgery.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2018 (2)

2016 (1)

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Wang, J. Wu, and T. B. Kirk, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 105003 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Wang, J. Wu, R. Day, and T. B. Kirk, J. Microsc. 248, 281(2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 363 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011003 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang and J. M. Jordan, Clin. Geriatr. Med. 26, 355 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, and G. O. Hofmann, Arch. Orthop. Traum. 129, 1117 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 648 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 10, 397 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

P. Pech, K. Bergström, W. Rauschning, and V. M. Haughton, Acta Radiol. 28, 779 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baums, M.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bentley, J. L.

Bergström, K.

P. Pech, K. Bergström, W. Rauschning, and V. M. Haughton, Acta Radiol. 28, 779 (1987).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 363 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Brezinski, M. E.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Brown, W. J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. A. Choma, and A. H. Dhalla, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (2015), pp. 65–94.

Chu, C. R.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, K. K.

Cox, B.

Crawford, M. K.

Crose, M.

Day, R.

K. Wang, J. Wu, R. Day, and T. B. Kirk, J. Microsc. 248, 281(2012).
[Crossref]

Dhalla, A. H.

J. A. Izatt, M. A. Choma, and A. H. Dhalla, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (2015), pp. 65–94.

Eldridge, W. J.

Fard, A. M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 363 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gay, S.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gerbaud, E.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hamidi, E.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harkrider, C. J.

Haughton, V. M.

P. Pech, K. Bergström, W. Rauschning, and V. M. Haughton, Acta Radiol. 28, 779 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, J. M.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Hoffmann, M.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, G. O.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, and G. O. Hofmann, Arch. Orthop. Traum. 129, 1117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J. A.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 10, 397 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Izatt, M. A. Choma, and A. H. Dhalla, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (2015), pp. 65–94.

Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 363 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jelly, E. T.

Jesser, C.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Jimenez, S.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jordan, J. M.

Y. Zhang and J. M. Jordan, Clin. Geriatr. Med. 26, 355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kirk, T. B.

K. Wang, J. Wu, and T. B. Kirk, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 105003 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wu, R. Day, and T. B. Kirk, J. Microsc. 248, 281(2012).
[Crossref]

Klinger, H. M.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, and G. O. Hofmann, Arch. Orthop. Traum. 129, 1117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kroker, A.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leggett, C.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Moore, D. T.

Ostergaard, K.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pech, P.

P. Pech, K. Bergström, W. Rauschning, and V. M. Haughton, Acta Radiol. 28, 779 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, J. P.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pitris, C.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Plettenberg, H.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pritzker, K. P.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, S.

Rauschning, W.

P. Pech, K. Bergström, W. Rauschning, and V. M. Haughton, Acta Radiol. 28, 779 (1987).
[Crossref]

Revell, P.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rouke, J. L.

Salter, D.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shaheen, N. J.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sharma, P.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spahn, G.

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, M. Baums, M. Hoffmann, H. Plettenberg, A. Kroker, and G. O. Hofmann, Am. J. Sport. Med. 38, 2516 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Spahn, H. M. Klinger, and G. O. Hofmann, Arch. Orthop. Traum. 129, 1117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stamper, D. L.

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, J. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, J. Rheumatol. 26, 627 (1999).

Steelman, Z. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Terry, N. G.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tomkinson, T. H.

Ughi, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 363 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van den Berg, W.

K. P. Pritzker, S. Gay, S. Jimenez, K. Ostergaard, J. P. Pelletier, P. Revell, D. Salter, and W. Van den Berg, Osteoarthr. Cartilage 14, 13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wallace, M. B.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

G. J. Ughi, H. Wang, E. Gerbaud, J. A. Gardecki, A. M. Fard, E. Hamidi, P. Vacas-Jacques, M. Rosenberg, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, JACC Cardiovasc. Imag. 9, 1304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, J. Wu, and T. B. Kirk, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 105003 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wu, R. Day, and T. B. Kirk, J. Microsc. 248, 281(2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. K.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wax, A.

Westphal, V.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolfsen, H. C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Low-cost OCT system with handle adapted for borescope scanning. The OCT engine case (13in.×2.5in.×6in., 6 lbs) includes a built-in PC and additional reference arm path length of 80cm in fiber. (b) Illustration of OCT borescope scanning mechanism. An ergonomic attachment (gray) mounts to the OCT scan head (black) (4.5in.×7.5in.×1.9in.). Inset: achromatic doublet lens (f=10mm) couples on-axis (blue) and off-axis (red) rays with the eyepiece of a handheld rigid borescope (4 mm diameter × 28  cm length, 3–4 mm working distance).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Gross anatomical landmarks of the porcine femur. 1. Posterior femoral head (PFH); 2. anterior femoral head (AFH); 3. medial femoral condyle (MFC); 4. lateral femoral condyle (LFC).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. OCT B scan of AFH, LFC, PFH, and MFC with thicknesses=550, 771, 836, and 743 μm, respectively, indicated by blue lines (scale bars=250μm).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Paired thickness measurements of articular cartilage using OCT and calipers show no significant difference. (b) Bland–Altman comparison of difference against mean for OCT and caliper data, with mean difference and 95% limits of agreement indicated.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. OCT B-scan images of articular cartilage of varying thicknesses, overlaid with a false-color map. Thin regions are visualized in dark red, while thicker regions approach yellow and white (scale bars=250μm).