Abstract

We report on a highly efficient experimental scheme for the generation of deep-ultraviolet (UV) ultrashort light pulses using four-wave mixing in gas-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber. By pumping with ultrashort, few microjoule pulses centered at 400 nm, we generate an idler pulse at 266 nm and amplify a seeded signal at 800 nm. We achieve remarkably high pump-to-idler energy conversion efficiencies of up to 38%. Although the pump and seed pulse durations are 100fs, the generated UV spectral bandwidths support sub-15 fs pulses. These can be further extended to support few-cycle pulses. Four-wave mixing in gas-filled hollow-core fibers can be scaled to high average powers and different spectral regions such as the vacuum UV (100–200 nm).

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (1)

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013814 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 2, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ermolov, K. F. Mak, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 92, 033821 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. St.J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, Nat. Photonics 8, 278 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

2009 (1)

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, and Z. Y. Xu, Appl. Phys. B 97, 9 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 24, 697 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 43, 1759 (1964).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013814 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 2, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. St.J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, Nat. Photonics 8, 278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2013).

Aleksandrovsky, A. S.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 24, 697 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Belli, F.

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013814 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 2, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beutler, M.

Biancalana, F.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 299 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biersach, C. M.

Birks, T. A.

Bromberger, H.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brunner, F.

B. Willenberg, F. Brunner, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper FTh1M.8.

Calegari, F.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cappellini, G.

Cavalleri, A.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 2, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. St.J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, Nat. Photonics 8, 278 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chatel, B.

A. Monmayrant, S. Weber, and B. Chatel, J. Phys. B 43, 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chávez-Cervantes, M.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. T.

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, and Z. Y. Xu, Appl. Phys. B 97, 9 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 1 (2003).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

Ermolov, A.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ermolov, K. F. Mak, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 92, 033821 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Frosz, M. H.

F. Tani, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 42, 1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ermolov, K. F. Mak, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 92, 033821 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ghotbi, M.

Gierz, I.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hertel, I. V.

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Hölzer, P.

P. St.J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, Nat. Photonics 8, 278 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joly, N.

Joly, N. Y.

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Keller, U.

B. Willenberg, F. Brunner, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper FTh1M.8.

Kida, Y.

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, T.

Konorov, S. O.

Kotsina, N.

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

Köttig, F.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, M. T.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. T.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Mak, K. F.

A. Ermolov, K. F. Mak, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 92, 033821 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 43, 1759 (1964).
[Crossref]

Misoguti, L.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Monmayrant, A.

A. Monmayrant, S. Weber, and B. Chatel, J. Phys. B 43, 103001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M.

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Nazarkin, A.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noack, F.

Nold, J.

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

Phillips, C. R.

B. Willenberg, F. Brunner, C. R. Phillips, and U. Keller, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper FTh1M.8.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St.J.

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 97, 013814 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Tani, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 42, 1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 4, 1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Belli, A. Abdolvand, W. Chang, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Optica 2, 292 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ermolov, K. F. Mak, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. A 92, 033821 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Bromberger, A. Ermolov, F. Belli, H. Liu, F. Calegari, M. Chávez-Cervantes, M. T. Li, C. T. Lin, A. Abdolvand, P. St.J. Russell, A. Cavalleri, J. C. Travers, and I. Gierz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091101 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. St.J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, Nat. Photonics 8, 278 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 299 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 43, 1759 (1964).
[Crossref]

Tani, F.

Teramoto, T.

Townsend, D.

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

Trabs, P.

Travers, J. C.

N. Kotsina, F. Belli, S. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Wang, J. C. Travers, and D. Townsend, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 715 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Deep and (b) vacuum ultraviolet generation schemes. Idler wavelengths ( λ i , blue lines) as a function of the seeded signal wavelengths ( λ s ) for the given pump beams centered at (a) 400 nm and (b) 266 nm, along with corresponding argon pressures (black lines) required to achieve linear phase matching Δ β ( ω p , ω i ) = 0 in a kagomé-PCF with a core diameter of 26 μm. The red dashed line marks the wavelength position of the seed signal used in our experiments.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Layout of the experimental setup. Retrieved pulse intensity profile (continuous line) and phase (dashed line) for the seed (red in (b)) and pump (black in (c)), together with the (d) experimental X-FROG trace for the pump pulse retrieval.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental pump energy scan with argon at 3.18 bar. (a) Output pump (black), signal (red), and idler (blue) pulse energies as a function of input pump energy, when seeding with a 250 nJ signal pulse. In the absence of seeding, the pump energy follows the black dashed line, and the idler and signal power are negligible. (b) Energy conversion efficiencies for idler generation E i out / E p in (blue), signal amplification ( E s out E s in ) / E p in (red), and pump depletion ( E p out E p in ) / E p in (black). The open circles represent the calibrated energy meter readings, while full dots represent the estimated energies from the calibrated spectrometer. (c)–(e) Output spectral energy densities (nJ/nm) for an input pump energy of 1.2 μJ when seeding with 250 nJ signal seed [(c) blue, (d) black, and (e) red] and without signal seed (gray), for the (c) idler, (d) pump, and (e) signal.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pump-seed delay scan and input power scan. (a) Conversion efficiencies η = E i out / E p in as function of the relative delay between the pump and seed pulse (with arbitrary offset) for 3.18 bar gas pressure and different power in the pump: 0.4 μJ (blue), 0.6 μJ (red), 0.8 μJ (yellow), 1.2 μJ (purple), and 1.6 μJ (green). Vertical line marks the temporal position of the power meter readings shown with open circles, which have been used to rescale the relative energy measurement obtained from the spectrometer at every delay position and shown with full dots. (b), (d) Estimated spectral energy density for fixed input pump power of (b) 1.2 μJ and (d) 1.5 μJ. (c) Estimated spectral energy density for the two fixed pump-seed delays marked with lines in (d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Pressure and delay scan. (a) Measured energies at the fiber output for pump (black), idler (blue), and signal (red) as function of pressure at a given temporal delay τ p i [marked with full circles in (b)]. (b) Estimated conversion efficiencies as a function of pump-seed delay for pressures of 3.14 (cyan), 3.19 (purple), 3.25 (orange), and 3.3 (black) bar. The full circles in (b) mark the temporal position of the photodiode energy measurement. The maximum conversion efficiency estimated from the calibrated spectrometer is 38%.

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