Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a 1-mm-thick near infrared camera comprised of a multi-level diffractive lens coupled with a conventional monochrome image sensor. We performed careful measurements of the point-spread function, the modulation transfer function, focusing efficiency, aberrations, and the field of view of the camera.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Meem, A. Majumder, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 26, 26866 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).
  6. S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Sci. Rep. 9, 5801 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Proc. SPIE 10982, 109822X (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).
  11. F. van den Bergh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, 1126 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. Imatest, “Sharpness: What is it and How it is Measured,” 2019, http://www.imatest.com/docs/sharpness/ .

2019 (5)

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Sci. Rep. 9, 5801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Proc. SPIE 10982, 109822X (2019).
[Crossref]

F. van den Bergh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, 1126 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, A. Majumder, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 26, 26866 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

Banerji, S.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Sci. Rep. 9, 5801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Proc. SPIE 10982, 109822X (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Dvonch, C.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

Majumder, A.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, A. Majumder, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 26, 26866 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

Meem, M.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, A. Majumder, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 26, 26866 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

Menon, R.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, A. Majumder, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 26, 26866 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

Mohammad, N.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, B. S.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Sci. Rep. 9, 5801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Proc. SPIE 10982, 109822X (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

Shen, B.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

van den Bergh, F.

Vasquez, F. G.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

Wang, P.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Optica (1)

OSA Contin. (1)

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, C. Dvonch, B. S. Rodriguez, and R. Menon, OSA Contin. 2, 2968 (2019).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Proc. SPIE 10982, 109822X (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

S. Banerji and B. Sensale-Rodriguez, Sci. Rep. 9, 5801 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 8, 2799 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. G. Vasquez, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Broadband lightweight flat lenses for longwave-infrared imaging,” arXiv: 1904.09011 (2019).

S. Banerji, M. Meem, A. Majumder, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, “Imaging over an unlimited bandwidth with a single diffractive surface,” arXiv: 1907.06251 (2019).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Imatest, “Sharpness: What is it and How it is Measured,” 2019, http://www.imatest.com/docs/sharpness/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Video from NIR camera

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Designed geometry of the MDL and (b) optical micrograph of the fabricated device. (c) Simulated and (d) measured PSFs. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the focusing efficiency (η) are noted in the figures.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Measured wavefront of the MDL using a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. (b) Measured coefficients of the constituent Zernike polynomials.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Photograph of the camera comprising a conventional image sensor and the MDL. Exemplary images taken with the camera of a (b) Macbeth chart, (c) USAF 1951 resolution chart, and (d) toy car (Visualization 1). (f) Image showing the field of view of the camera (approx. 50 ° × 40 ° ). For (d) and (f), two NIR flashlights were used to uniformly illuminate the scene.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Modulation transfer function (MTF) via (a) absolute value of the FFT of the measured PSF and via (b) the slanted-edge method for off-axis PSFs.

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