Abstract

We demonstrate optical unlocking of a cavity resonance in a mid-infrared (MIR) quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity ring-down spectrometer using a low-power multimode near-infrared (NIR) laser diode. A NIR laser with a center wavelength of 1310 nm is injected into a QCL whose amplitude and frequency are modulated as a result. The shift in frequency leads to a rapid interruption of the cavity resonance. The optical method is compared to cavity interruption with a current step by measuring ring-down times in a high-finesse optical cavity, coupled with a QCL with a center wavelength of 4.5 μm. The results indicate the comparable performance of the all-optical method with the more conventional current modulation, but with significantly reduced bandwidth requirements for the QCL driver, opening the way to other potential applications in MIR laser spectroscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based high-resolution cavity ring-down spectrometer for ultrasensitive trace gas detection

Anulekha De, Gourab Dutta Banik, Abhijit Maity, Mithun Pal, and Manik Pradhan
Opt. Lett. 41(9) 1949-1952 (2016)

Radiocarbon dioxide detection based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser

G. Genoud, M. Vainio, H. Phillips, J. Dean, and M. Merimaa
Opt. Lett. 40(7) 1342-1345 (2015)

Ultra-sensitive cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral region

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, Q. Liu, and J. T. Hodges
Opt. Lett. 41(7) 1612-1615 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Berden and E. Richard, eds., Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley, 2009).
  2. S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. 79, 941 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Bostrom, R. Andrew, and D. Atkinson, Opt. Lett. 39, 4227 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Sekine and I. Hosako, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, and R. Martini, Opt. Express 17, 24282 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Yang, G. Chen, C. Tian, and R. Martini, Opt. Lett. 38, 1200 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Fischer, B. Tuzson, A. Hugi, R. Brönnimann, A. Kunz, S. Blaser, M. Rochat, O. Landry, A. Muller, and L. Emmenegger, Opt. Express 22, 7014 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. J. van Leeuwen, J. C. Diettrich, and A. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 42, 3670 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Genoud, M. Vainio, H. Phillips, J. Dean, and M. Merimaa, Opt. Lett. 40, 1342 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. Sekine and I. Hosako, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, and R. Martini, Opt. Express 17, 24282 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. 79, 941 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Andrew, R.

Atkinson, D.

Bethea, C. G.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, and R. Martini, Opt. Express 17, 24282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

Bostrom, G.

Brönnimann, R.

Chen, G.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Yang, G. Chen, C. Tian, and R. Martini, Opt. Lett. 38, 1200 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, and R. Martini, Opt. Express 17, 24282 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, I. C. A.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davies, P. B.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dean, J.

Diettrich, J. C.

Dudek, R.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Emmenegger, L.

Engeln, R.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, P.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

Frogley, M. D.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Genoud, G.

Grant, P. D.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. 79, 941 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hopkinson, M.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hosako, I.

N. Sekine and I. Hosako, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hugi, A.

Kundys, D. O.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kunz, A.

Landry, O.

Li, J.

Li, Z.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Lombardi, G.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martini, R.

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Yang, G. Chen, C. Tian, and R. Martini, Opt. Lett. 38, 1200 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, and R. Martini, Opt. Express 17, 24282 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Merimaa, M.

Muller, A.

Orr, B. J.

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. 79, 941 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, S. W.

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C. C.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phillips, H.

Rochat, M.

Röpcke, J.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schram, D. C.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sekine, N.

N. Sekine and I. Hosako, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. S.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, C.

Tuzson, B.

Vainio, M.

van Leeuwen, N. J.

Wang, D.

Wang, L.

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Welzel, S.

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, Z.

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilson, A. C.

Wilson, L. R.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

Zervos, C.

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, Opt. Lett. 42, 4506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. 79, 941 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Zervos, M. D. Frogley, C. C. Phillips, D. O. Kundys, L. R. Wilson, M. Hopkinson, and M. S. Skolnick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053505 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Sekine and I. Hosako, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, R. Martini, S. W. Park, C. G. Bethea, I. C. A. Chen, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011102 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Peng, G. Chen, J. Tang, L. Wang, Z. Wen, H. Zhou, and R. Martini, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1727 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE. Photonics J. (1)

H. Zhou, C. Peng, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Chen, Z. Li, Q. Peng, P. Feng, and B. Wei, IEEE. Photonics J. 10, 6400109 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Welzel, G. Lombardi, P. B. Davies, R. Engeln, D. C. Schram, and J. Röpcke, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

G. Berden and E. Richard, eds., Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of the experimental setup; more details are given in the text.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Typical cavity ring-down traces from detector 1 with and without active interruption. Timing signal that triggers the interruption and laser power measured with the detector 2 (AC), showing the effect of NIR modulation. (b) Scatterplot of the ring-down measurements against the QCL modulation voltage.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Typical ring-down traces and fit residuals with (a) optical interruption, (b) electrical interruption, and (c) no interruption.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Histogram plot of the fitted ring-down times with optical and electrical interruption. (b) Relative Allan deviations of the time series of ring-down events measured with optical and electrical interruptions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. CO 2 absorption spectrum around 2209.08 cm 1 peak at 20 mbar pressure and approximately 23°C. The CO 2 amount fraction was close to 100%. Spectra measured with (a) optical interruption and (b) electrical interruption.

Metrics