Abstract

We report the direct femtosecond laser inscription of type-I fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) into the core of soft-glass ZBLAN fibers. We investigate and compare various fabrication methods such as single pass (line by line), double pass, and stacking (plane by plane) to create the highest reflectivity FBGs (99.98%) for mid-infrared (mid-IR) applications. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate how the parameters that influence the coupling coefficient, i.e., refractive index modulation and overlap factor, can be controlled in these gratings to specifically tailor the FBG properties. The performance of the direct-written type-I gratings after 6 h of annealing is further analyzed, and the reflectivity increases by approximately 10 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of temperature-stable mid-IR FBGs with highest coupling coefficient (464m1) and lowest loss (<0.5dB/cm) without the use of an expensive phase mask.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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[Crossref]

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, OSA Contin. 1, 56 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 43, 1471 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, Opt. Lett. 43, 4542 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, Opt. Express 17, 16941 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

I. R. Dunkley, R. W. Smith, and U. Varma, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1027, 150 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

M. Ams, P. Dekker, S. Gross, and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 6, 743 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bharathan, R. I. Woodward, M. Ams, D. D. Hudson, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, Opt. Express 25, 30013 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Antipov, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, E. Magi, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, Opt. Express 24, 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Androz, G.

Antipov, S.

Aydin, Y. O.

Bah, S. T.

Bernier, M.

Bharathan, G.

Butcher, H. L.

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Caron, N.

Chin, S. L.

D’Auteuil, M.

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, P. Dekker, S. Gross, and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 6, 743 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

Dunkley, I. R.

I. R. Dunkley, R. W. Smith, and U. Varma, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1027, 150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Faucher, D.

Fernandez, T.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Firth, J.

Fortin, V.

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grobnic, D.

Gross, S.

M. Ams, P. Dekker, S. Gross, and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 6, 743 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wieschendorf, J. Firth, L. Silvestri, S. Gross, F. Ladouceur, M. J. Withford, D. J. Spence, and A. Fuerbach, Opt. Express 25, 1692 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gross and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 4, 332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Henderson, G.

Hirao, K.

Hudson, D. D.

Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jovanovic, N.

Ladouceur, F.

Lee, D.

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

MacLachlan, D. G.

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maes, F.

Magi, E.

Majewski, M. R.

Marshall, G. D.

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 19844 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mihailov, S. J.

Miura, K.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[Crossref]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakakura, M.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Saliminia, A.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Y.

Shimotsuma, Y.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, L.

Smelser, C. W.

Smith, R. W.

I. R. Dunkley, R. W. Smith, and U. Varma, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1027, 150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sotillo, B.

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

Spence, D. J.

Steel, M. J.

Sugimoto, N.

Thomson, R. R.

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Unruh, J.

Vallée, R.

Varma, U.

I. R. Dunkley, R. W. Smith, and U. Varma, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1027, 150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. B.

Weidmann, D.

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wieschendorf, C.

Williams, R. J.

Withford, M. J.

Woodward, R. I.

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

I. R. Dunkley, R. W. Smith, and U. Varma, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1027, 150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (2)

S. Gross and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 4, 332 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, S. Gross, and M. J. Withford, Nanophotonics 6, 743 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

OSA Contin. (2)

G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, OSA Contin. 1, 56 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. L. Butcher, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Lee, R. R. Thomson, and D. Weidmann, OSA Contin. 1, 221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 68 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Microscopic image of the FBG (top view) for various translation speeds: (a) 20 μm/s, (b) 40 μm/s, (c) 80 μm/s, and (d) 120 μm/s.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Longitudinal and transverse cross sections of various inscription techniques: (a) single pass, (b) over pass, and (c) stacking.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Variation of κ with respect to grating order ( L = 5 mm ). The inset shows the cross section of the modification in fiber induced by (a) 0.9 NA 50 × oil-immersion objective and (b) 0.6 NA 40 × dry objective.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Transmission spectra of a 13 mm long FBG before and after annealing at 150°C.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Variation of κ with respect to the scanning distance in the y axis. Inset shows various widths in y axis along the length of the fiber. The experiment used FBGs with L = 5 mm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the Various Grating Parameters (for Grating with Physical Length L = 5 mm ) with Different Microscope Objectives and Inscription Techniques

Equations (2)

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R = tanh 2 ( κ L ) ,
κ = π Δ n η λ B .

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