Abstract

We demonstrate longitudinal beam-steering with a 1×16 silicon optical phased array (OPA) using a monochromatic light source and thermo-optic control of the refractive index in the grating radiator region. The refractive index is controlled by forming a series of n-i-n heaters, placing i-regions in each radiator of the OPA. When the biased voltage in the heaters is increased, the refractive index of the radiator region is increased by the thermo-optic effect, and the longitudinal radiation angle is changed according to the Bragg condition. The transversal beam-steering is accomplished by phase control with the phase shifters, which are devised with a p-i-n diode using the electro-optic effect. With these electro-optic p-i-n phase shifters and n-i-n thermo-optic radiators, we achieve a relatively wide 2D beam-steering in a range of 10.0°/45.4° in the longitudinal/transversal directions with a 1.55 μm light source. The tuning efficiency is 0.016°/mW in the longitudinal beam-steering.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2018 (1)

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, Nanophotonics 6, 93 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 42, 4091 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (4)

2014 (1)

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Abediasl, H.

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Dewanjee, J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 24, 28194 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Dewanjee, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2016), p. 414.

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (2013), paper OTh3I.7.

Bae, M.-J.

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Binetti, P.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (2013), paper OTh3I.7.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Byrd, M. J.

Caspers, J. N.

Coldren, L. A.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 23, 5861 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (2013), paper OTh3I.7.

Cole, D. B.

Davenport, M. L.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 23, 5861 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[Crossref]

DePrenger, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dewanjee, A.

A. Dewanjee, J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 24, 28194 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Dewanjee, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2016), p. 414.

Doylend, J. K.

Ferraro, M. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feshali, A.

Fleet, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (2013), paper OTh3I.7.

Ha, Y.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Han, S.-K.

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasehmi, H.

Heck, J.

Heck, M. J. R.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hulme, J. C.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 23, 5861 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hutchison, D. N.

Ishii, H.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L. A.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (2013), paper OTh3I.7.

Kang, G.

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Kasaya, K.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim and H.-H. Park, Opt. Lett. 40, 4859 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-Y.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Kim, M.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Kim, W.

Kim, Y.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Kumar, R.

Kwon, N.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Lee, D.-S.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Lee, D.-W.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Lee, H.

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mojahedi, M.

A. Dewanjee, J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, Opt. Express 24, 28194 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Dewanjee, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, in IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2016), p. 414.

Okamoto, K.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oohashi, H.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-H.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim and H.-H. Park, Opt. Lett. 40, 4859 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Phare, C. T.

Poulton, C. V.

Pruessner, M. W.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. W. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Opt. Eng. 55, 111603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raval, M.

Rhee, H.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Rhee, H.-W.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

Shi, Y.

Shibata, Y.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Skafida, E.

Sun, J.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vermeulen, D.

Wang, K.

Wang, Y.

Watts, M. R.

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 42, 4091 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Yaacobi, A.

C. V. Poulton, A. Yaacobi, D. B. Cole, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 42, 4091 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yasaka, H.

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Yasaka, and K. Okamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1089 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeo, S.

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoo, D.-E.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S. Yeo, G. Kang, J. Kim, D.-E. Yoo, H. Lee, and H.-H. Park, Proc. SPIE 10109, 101090Z (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Yoon, H.

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

You, J.-B.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

Yu, K.

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Lee, G. Kang, S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H. Rhee, N. Kwon, Y. Kim, M. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, H. Yoon, Y. Ha, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Wideangle 2-D beam-steering with Si-based 16×(1×16) optical phased array.”

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

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J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-K. Han, M.-J. Bae, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2304 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kim, J.-B. You, H.-W. Rhee, D.-E. Yoo, D.-W. Lee, K. Yu, and H.-H. Park, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1427 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Layout of designed 1 × 16 optical phased array.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the tunable grating radiator with n - i - n heaters.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Simulation and experimental results of longitudinal radiation angle change ( Δ θ ) with varying heating power. (b) and (c) show the simulated far-field pattern of 1 × 16 OPA at heating power of 0 mW and 330 mW, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured far-field patterns of the 1 × 16 OPA showing beam-steering in the longitudinal and transversal directions: longitudinal steering of the (a) inphased main beam ( Δ ϕ = 0 ) and (b)  π -phased two beams ( Δ ϕ = π ) by changing the heating power from 0 to 600 mW, respectively. In the figures in (b), the angle between two π -phased beams indicate the maximum steering range in the transversal direction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental data for the relative intensity of the inphase main beam during longitudinal beam-steering, during operation of the tunable radiator and tunable light source.

Equations (1)

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θ = sin 1 ( n eff λ / Λ ) ,

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