Abstract

We report a passively mode-locked Dy3+:fluoride fiber laser emitting around 3.1 μm based on the nonlinear polarization evolution technique in a ring configuration, using in-band pumping at 2.8 μm. Transform-limited and self-starting mode-locked pulses as short as 828 fs with a center wavelength around 3.1 μm and repetition rates up to 60 MHz are obtained. In the single-pulse regime, a maximum average output power of 204 mW is measured, corresponding to a peak power of 4.2 kW and a pulse energy of 4.8 nJ. This first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of a femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser emitting directly beyond 3 μm paves the way for frequency comb synthesis in the molecular fingerprint region.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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S. Duval, J.-C. Gauthier, L.-R. Robichaud, P. Paradis, M. Olivier, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, M. Piché, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 41, 5294 (2016).
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2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

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[Crossref]

N. Caron, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, and R. Vallée, Opt. Express 20, 22188 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, Sensors 9, 8230 (2009).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

F. Gan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Babic, F.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bah, S. T.

Balakrishnan, K.

Bang, O.

Bernier, M.

Bozzetti, M.

Briles, T. C.

Brilland, L.

Caillaud, C.

Cao, H.

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caron, N.

Cassinerio, M.

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coluccelli, N.

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cossel, K. C.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duval, S.

Falconi, M. C.

Faucher, D.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, Nat. Photonics 7, 868 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, T. T.

Finger, M. A.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Foltynowicz, A.

Fortin, V.

Fuerbach, A.

Gai, X.

Galzerano, G.

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 5327 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gambetta, A.

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

F. Gan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gatti, D.

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, J.-C.

Genest, J.

Gomes, L.

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haboucha, A.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, T.

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

M. R. Majewski, R. I. Woodward, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 43, 971 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 42, 4893 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 39, 2133 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, and S. D. Jackson, in CLEO Pacific Rim Conference (2018), paper PDP.8.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joly, N. Y.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kubat, I.

Laneve, D.

Laporta, P.

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Librantz, A. F. H.

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Majewski, M. R.

M. R. Majewski, R. I. Woodward, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 43, 971 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, and S. D. Jackson, in CLEO Pacific Rim Conference (2018), paper PDP.8.

Maslowski, P.

Méchin, D.

Messaddeq, Y.

Møller, U.

Norwood, R. A.

Olivier, M.

Paradis, P.

Petersen, C. R.

Peyghambarian, N.

Piché, M.

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prudenzano, F.

Redding, B.

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robichaud, L.-R.

Russell, P. St. J.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sahay, P.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, Sensors 9, 8230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

Travers, J. C.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, Sensors 9, 8230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Wei, C.

Wong, G. K. L.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. I.

Xu, Y.

Ye, J.

Yu, Y.

Zhu, X.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1469 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Gan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, B. Redding, H. Cao, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Nat. Commun. 7, 12995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, Nat. Photonics 7, 868 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Gambetta, M. Cassinerio, D. Gatti, P. Laporta, and G. Galzerano, Sci. Rep. 6, 35541 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, Sensors 9, 8230 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, and S. D. Jackson, in CLEO Pacific Rim Conference (2018), paper PDP.8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the ring fiber laser cavity and (b) simplified energy level diagram of a Dy 3 + ion. M, protected gold mirror; DM, dichroic mirror; CMS, cladding mode stripper; OC, output coupler; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; L 1 , 2 , 3 , aspheric ZnSe lenses ( f = 12.5 mm ); τ 1 , laser upper state lifetime.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Temporal trace of the mode-locked pulse train (with 4.5 m fiber); (b) pulse autocorrelation traces for different fiber lengths (3 m in blue, 4.5 m in red) and a hyperbolic secant fit (in blue dashed line) for the shortest case with 3 m fiber.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized power spectral density of the pulse train signal (a) over a 1 GHz span (1 MHz RBW) and (b) at around the fundamental repetition frequency of 42.2 MHz at 20 kHz RBW (4.5 m fiber).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical spectrum of the mode-locking pulse train (generated with 4.5 m fiber) measured with the OSA at 0.2 nm resolution.

Equations (1)

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D = 2 λ c 2 c l m ,

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