Abstract

We report on the progress towards developing a new method for fabricating more efficient, broadband antireflective (AR) moth-eye structures in As2Se3 via a direct nanoimprinting technique. Thermal reflow is used during mold fabrication to reshape a conventional deep-ultraviolet lithography in order to promote a pattern transfer of “secant ogive”-like moth-eye structures. Once replicated, structures modified by reflow displayed greater AR efficiency compared to structures replicated by a conventional mold, achieving the highest spectrum-averaged transmittance improvement of 12.36% from 3.3 to 12 μm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Huddleston, J. Novak, W. V. Moreshead, A. Symmons, and E. Foote, Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511O (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1503 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, A. Greer, and H. Fudouzi, Opt. Express 21, 9584 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Danto, E. Koontz, Y. Zou, T. O. Ogbuu, B. Gleason, P. Wachtel, J. D. Musgraves, J. Hu, and K. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 8884, 88841T (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

B. D. MacLeod, D. S. Hobbs, and E. Sabatino, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160Q (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Schift, C. Spreu, A. Schleunitz, and J. Lee, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 87 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Small 6, 984 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, Proc. R. Soc. London 273, 661 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Brinley, S. Seal, R. Folks, E. Braunstein, and L. Kramer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1141 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. S. Hobbs and B. D. MacLeod, Proc. SPIE 5786, 349 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Hirai, S. Yoshida, and N. Takagi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2765 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
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1970 (1)

C. G. Bernhard, J. Boëthius, G. Gemne, and G. Struwe, Nature 226, 865 (1970).
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Abdel-Moneim, N. S.

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Aggarwal, I. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, O.

Arikawa, K.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, Proc. R. Soc. London 273, 661 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Bayya, S. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bellec, Y.

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, C. G.

C. G. Bernhard, J. Boëthius, G. Gemne, and G. Struwe, Nature 226, 865 (1970).
[Crossref]

Boëthius, J.

C. G. Bernhard, J. Boëthius, G. Gemne, and G. Struwe, Nature 226, 865 (1970).
[Crossref]

Brady, D.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Braunstein, E.

E. Brinley, S. Seal, R. Folks, E. Braunstein, and L. Kramer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1141 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brinley, E.

E. Brinley, S. Seal, R. Folks, E. Braunstein, and L. Kramer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1141 (2006).
[Crossref]

Busse, L. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cha, D. H.

Chang, K. S.

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chenard, F.

Chin, G. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Curry, R. J.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Danto, S.

S. Danto, E. Koontz, Y. Zou, T. O. Ogbuu, B. Gleason, P. Wachtel, J. D. Musgraves, J. Hu, and K. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 8884, 88841T (2013).
[Crossref]

Elliott, G.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Ezzat, R.

A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Florea, C.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Foletti, S.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, Proc. R. Soc. London 273, 661 (2006).
[Crossref]

Folks, R.

E. Brinley, S. Seal, R. Folks, E. Braunstein, and L. Kramer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1141 (2006).
[Crossref]

Foote, E.

J. Huddleston, J. Novak, W. V. Moreshead, A. Symmons, and E. Foote, Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511O (2015).
[Crossref]

Fudouzi, H.

Furniss, D.

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gemne, G.

C. G. Bernhard, J. Boëthius, G. Gemne, and G. Struwe, Nature 226, 865 (1970).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D. J.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gleason, B.

S. Danto, E. Koontz, Y. Zou, T. O. Ogbuu, B. Gleason, P. Wachtel, J. D. Musgraves, J. Hu, and K. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 8884, 88841T (2013).
[Crossref]

Greer, A.

Guimond, Y.

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Harrison, B. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heilig, M.

A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Hirai, Y.

Y. Hirai, S. Yoshida, and N. Takagi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2765 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hobbs, D. S.

B. D. MacLeod, D. S. Hobbs, and E. Sabatino, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160Q (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hobbs and B. D. MacLeod, Proc. SPIE 5786, 349 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. W.

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

S. Danto, E. Koontz, Y. Zou, T. O. Ogbuu, B. Gleason, P. Wachtel, J. D. Musgraves, J. Hu, and K. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 8884, 88841T (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Huddleston, J.

J. Huddleston, J. Novak, W. V. Moreshead, A. Symmons, and E. Foote, Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511O (2015).
[Crossref]

Hughes, M.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Hwang, Y.

Jakobsen, M. H.

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Small 6, 984 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J. C.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, W. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Knight, K.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Kohoutek, T.

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, A. Greer, and H. Fudouzi, Opt. Express 21, 9584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kolew, A.

A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koontz, E.

S. Danto, E. Koontz, Y. Zou, T. O. Ogbuu, B. Gleason, P. Wachtel, J. D. Musgraves, J. Hu, and K. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 8884, 88841T (2013).
[Crossref]

Kramer, L.

E. Brinley, S. Seal, R. Folks, E. Braunstein, and L. Kramer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1141 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kung, F. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

H. Schift, C. Spreu, A. Schleunitz, and J. Lee, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 87 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Small 6, 984 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lotz, M. R.

MacLeod, B. D.

B. D. MacLeod, D. S. Hobbs, and E. Sabatino, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160Q (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hobbs and B. D. MacLeod, Proc. SPIE 5786, 349 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mairaj, A.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Markos, C.

Masselink, W. T.

Mathonneire, S.

Matsuoka, Y.

Mellor, C. J.

A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miklos, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miklos, R. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moreshead, W. V.

J. Huddleston, J. Novak, W. V. Moreshead, A. Symmons, and E. Foote, Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511O (2015).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mossadegh, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[Crossref]

Münch, D.

A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Musgraves, J. D.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. Hirai, S. Yoshida, and N. Takagi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2765 (2003).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. Schift, C. Spreu, A. Schleunitz, and J. Lee, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 87 (2011).
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A. Kolew, M. Heilig, M. Schneider, D. Münch, R. Ezzat, N. Schneider, and M. Worgull, Microsyst. Technol. 20, 1967 (2014).
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Nature (1)

C. G. Bernhard, J. Boëthius, G. Gemne, and G. Struwe, Nature 226, 865 (1970).
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A. B. Seddon, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, L. Zhang, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. J. Mellor, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, T. Wagner, and T. M. Benson, Opt. Eng. 53, 071824 (2014).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Small 6, 984 (2010).
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Other (2)

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, R. E. Simpson, and C. Sproat, Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics (Research Signpost, 2010), p. 29.

Amorphous Materials Inc., “AMTIR-2 data sheet.”

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Process flow diagram of the mold fabrication method and subsequent ChG sample structuring.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Nanoimprint setup. (b) Cross-sectional sketch of the assembly. (c) Plot of the piston force and hotplate temperature applied during the five phases of nanoimprinting. The insert shows a photograph of a textured ChG sample with the aluminum ring surrounding it.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SEM images of the deep-ultraviolet lithography with t = 1000 nm and p = 1300 nm , viewed at 30° tilt. (a) Reference lithography without reflow. (b)–(d) SEM images of the lithography after subjecting it to reflow temperatures of 160°C, 165°C, and 170°C for 90 s, respectively. The length of all scalebars is 1 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM images of the Si microstructures transferred from an etch mask with t = 1000 nm and p = 1300 nm . Structures transferred by the reference pattern, viewed at (a) 45° tilt and (b) 0° tilt. Structures transferred by the reflow modified etch mask with T r = 170 ° C , viewed at (c) 45 ° tilt and (d) 0° tilt. The inserts show the measured gap between structures. The length of all scalebars is 1 μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Plot of the inverted AFM profile line-scans for the three fabricated Ni-mold structures (plotted in 1:1 aspect ratio). The inset shows an enlarged view of the sidewall. (b) SEM image of the transferred Si microstructures using a resist pattern with t = 1400 nm , p = 1300 nm , and T r = 165 ° C , viewed at 30° tilt. (c) SEM image of the final Ni-mold surface using (b) as a preform, viewed at 30° tilt.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Plots of the measured 0th-order transmittance, T , as a function of the incident wavelength before and after texturing the ChG samples using mold (a) #1, (b) #2, and (c) #3. The inserts show the RCWA model profile used to reproduce the measured T. (d)–(f) SEM images of the three replicated surface textures from molds #1, #2, and #3, respectively, viewed at 30° tilt.

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