Abstract

Two-photon polymerization (TPP) based on laser direct writing is currently one of the most prevailing 3D micro/nano fabrication techniques. Nanomaterials can be doped in resins and assembled by TPP for developing advanced 3D functional devices. However, there lacks an effective visualization tool to determine the distribution and orientation of the nanomaterials as-doped in the composite resins. Herein, we present a nondestructive, in situ, and rapid characterization method to determine the orientation and distribution of the nanomaterials within cured resins using polarized second-harmonic generation (p-SHG). The directional assembly of the ZnO nanowires within micro/nanostructures fabricated by TPP is, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, characterized by p-SHG optical microscopy with a fast imaging speed by two orders of magnitude higher than that of the Raman mapping technique. Our method opens a window for nondestructive, rapid, in situ, and polarization-resolved characterization of functional devices made by TPP micro/nanofabrication.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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