Abstract

We present a polarization-sensitive (PS) extension for bright- and dark-field (BRAD) optical coherence tomography imaging. Using a few-mode fiber detection scheme, the light backscattered at different angles is separated, and the BRAD images of tissue scattering are generated. A calibration method to correct for the fiber birefringence is proposed. Since particle scattering profiles are polarization dependent, a PS detection extends the capabilities for investigating the scattering properties of biological tissues. Both phantoms consisting of different-sized microparticles and a brain tissue specimen were imaged to validate the system performance and demonstrate the complementary image contrast.

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, Opt. Express 19, 12141 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P.-E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abosch, A.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akkin, T.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Qaisi, M. K.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aspect, A.

Augustin, M.

Ayala-Díaz, C.

Baumann, B.

Beer, F.

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

Biedermann, B. R.

Black, A. J.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blatter, C.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Choi, W.

Davidson, J.

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

Desjardins, A. E.

Duan, L.

Duker, J. S.

Dwelle, J.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Eugui, P.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haindl, R.

Harper, D. J.

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.-J.

Huang, D.

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 20, 10229 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Huffman, D.

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiao, S.

Jun, C.

Kilkson, R.

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

Konegger, T.

Laslandes, M.

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lichtenegger, A.

Lim, Y.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lippok, N.

Maret, G.

P.-E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[Crossref]

Markey, M. K.

Mendieta-Jiménez, F. J.

Milner, T. E.

Muck, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Netoff, T. I.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pache, C.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Roetzer, T.

Rylander, H. G.

Salas, M.

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stigen, T. W.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stoica, G.

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 32, 3158 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tentori, D.

Torzicky, T.

Trasischker, W.

Trevino-Martínez, F.

Vakoc, B. J.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Courier Corporation, 1981).

Vansteenkiste, N.

Vignolo, P.

Villiger, M.

Wang, B.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wartak, A.

Widhalm, G.

Wieser, W.

Woehrer, A.

Wolf, P.-E.

P.-E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yin, B.

Yu, W.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, J.

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zotter, S.

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Neuroimage (1)

H. Wang, A. J. Black, J. Zhu, T. W. Stigen, M. K. Al-Qaisi, T. I. Netoff, A. Abosch, and T. Akkin, Neuroimage 58, 984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P.-E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

W. S. Bickel, J. Davidson, D. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486 (1976).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Courier Corporation, 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. BRAD-OCT setup with PS extension. AOC, analog output card; BD, balanced photodetector; BS, beam splitter; DAQ, data acquisition; FC, fiber collimator; FMF, few-mode fiber; L, lens; MEMS, scanner; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PC, polarization control paddles; RR, retroreflector; S, sample; SMF, single-mode fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Illustration of the FMF birefringence compensation procedure. (a) Measured Stokes vectors S c and S v are transformed from the input vectors S c and S v due to the FMF birefringence which changes the orientation in the Poincaré sphere. (b) First rotation R 1 ( θ 1 ) around the normal S c × S c to align S c with S c . (c) Second rotation R 2 ( θ 2 ) around the V axis to match the input Stokes vectors orientation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Stokes vector image of a birefringent foil for LP 01 without calibration. The pixels with low intensity are masked in gray. (b) Poincaré sphere showing the Stokes vectors as a function of depth indicated in yellow and the pixel indicated in red in (a). (c) Stokes vector image after the calibration procedure. (d) Poincaré sphere plotting the cross section in yellow and the pixel in red indicated in (c).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration of phase retardation calculation from the corrected Stokes vectors S using the surface Stokes vector S surf as reference.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Stokes parameter distributions for phantoms containing (a) 5 μm microspheres reconstructed by LP 01 , (b) 7 μm microspheres reconstructed by LP 01 , (c) 5 μm microspheres reconstructed by LP 21 , and (d) 7 μm microspheres reconstructed by LP 21 .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PS BRAD-OCT images of a human brainstem. (a) Intensity B-scan of the LP 01 co-polarized channel. (b) Corresponding LP 01 retardation B-scan. Gray matter tissue appears as polarization preserving (yellow arrow), while the white matter appears as birefringent (increasing retardation, red arrow). (c) En-face projection image of the co-polarized intensity collected by LP 01 . (d) En-face projection image of the cross-polarized intensity collected by LP 01 . The hyperscattering fiber tracts are indicated by the yellow arrows. (e) En-face projection image of the co-polarized intensity collected by LP 21 . (f) En-face projection image of the cross-polarized intensity collected by LP 21 . (g) BRAD ratio image of LP 01 and LP 21 reflectivity signals reveal strong direct backscattering for the indicated fiber tracts. The granular yellow spots correspond to locations where the wet tissue surface created specular reflection artifacts. (h) Corresponding LP 01 retardation map where high retardation values reveal birefringent white matter tracts. The scale bars correspond to 150 μm.

Equations (1)

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δ = arctan ( Q 2 + U 2 V ) .

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