Abstract

Next-generation passive optical networks require integrated, polarization-insensitive wavelength-division multiplexing solutions, for which the recently emerging low-loss silicon nitride nanophotonic platforms hold great potential. A novel polarization-insensitive arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) built with silicon nitride waveguides is presented in this Letter. Polarization insensitivity is obtained when both the channel spacing and the center wavelength of the two orthogonal polarization states (i.e., the TE and TM waveguide modes) are simultaneously aligned. In our design, the channel spacing alignment between the polarization states is obtained by optimizing the geometry of the arrayed waveguides, whereas the central wavelength polarization insensitivity is obtained by splitting the two polarization states and adjusting their angle of incidence at the input star coupler to compensate for the polarization mode dispersion of the AWG. A 100 GHz 1×8 wavelength-division multiplexer with crosstalk levels below 16dB is demonstrated experimentally.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (2)

2015 (1)

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
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J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
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S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 5710 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (4)

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, and Y.-K. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 469 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sattari, Optik 123, 775 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

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[Crossref]

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C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Adleman, J. R.

J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amersfoort, M. R.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Andreadakis, N. C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Baets, R. G.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

Bhat, U.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Bienstman, P.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 5710 (2014).
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S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 87 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, Opt. Express 14, 664 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bowers, E.

J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caneau, C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, and Y.-K. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 469 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheung, S.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Coppinger, F.

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[Crossref]

Dagenais, M.

Dave, U.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, and Y.-K. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 469 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Fukuda, H.

Gatkine, P.

Goh, T.

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

HeckJohn, M. J. R.

J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helin, P.

Hermans, A.

Hibino, Y.

Hu, Y.

Hunziker, W.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S. I.

Jaenen, P.

Jalali, B.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940 (1997).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jia, K.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, A.

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koza, M. A.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Kuyken, B.

Lamontagne, B.

Lanker, M.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

LeBlanc, H. P.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Li, Y.

Long, C.

Martens, D.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Melchior, H.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

Muneeb, M.

Nadler, C.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nishi, I.

Ogawa, L.

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 5710 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Post, E.

Rahim, A.

Rajhel, A.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Raza, A.

Roelkens, G.

Rottenberg, X.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sattari, H.

H. Sattari, Optik 123, 775 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Severi, S.

Shinojima, H.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[Crossref]

Soole, J. B. D.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Su, T.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A.

Subramanian, A. Z.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

Takahashi, H.

Tanaka, T.

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thomas, N. L.

Thourhout, D. V.

Trinh, P.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vanslembrouck, M.

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Veilleux, S.

Waldron, P.

Wang, M.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

Wildermuth, E.

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wouters, J.

Wu, Y.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Yamada, H.

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

Yang, J.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Youtsey, C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. F. Bauters, J. R. Adleman, M. J. R. HeckJohn, and E. Bowers, Appl. Phys. A 116, 427 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. Nadler, E. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8202207 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, and L. Ogawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 5710 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang, and Y. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 378 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Martens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, and R. G. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 137 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (1)

H. Sattari, Optik 123, 775 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, M. A. Koza, U. Bhat, and C. Youtsey, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC ’96) (1996), Vol. 2, p. WB5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Microscope image of the polarization-insensitive AWG; (b) microscope image of the polarization beam splitter; (c) schematics of the input star couplers with different injection angles for TE and TM modes; (d) schematic of the output star coupler (not in scale).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Ratio ( Γ 2 ) of the TE slab waveguide index ( n s , TE ) to the TM slab waveguide index ( n s , TM ) as a function of the width of the waveguide.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured power transmission spectra of the polarization beam splitter for the TE and TM modes; (b) layout schematic of the polarization beam splitter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured power transmission spectra of the AWG for the TE and TM polarizations.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated center wavelength deviations due to fabrication errors in waveguide width.

Equations (7)

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Δ λ = D d n s f m ,
FSR = λ n eff m n g = N Δ λ Δ λ = λ n eff m n g 1 N ,
D d n s f m = λ n eff m n g N n s n eff n g .
n eff , TE n g , TE / n eff , TM n g , TM = n s , TE n s , TM .
λ TE / TM = ( n eff , TE / TM Δ L n s , TE / TM d l / f ) / m TE / TM ,
Δ L = m TE λ n eff , TE = m TM λ n eff , TM m TM = m TE n eff , TM n eff , TE .
θ div = l f = ( n s , TM n eff , TE Δ L n s , TE n eff , TM Δ L ) / n s , TM n s , TE d .

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