Abstract

Intravascular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve the identification of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque. Most intravascular photoacoustic endoscopes use multimode fibers, which do not allow tight focusing of photons. Recent experiments on pulse propagation in multimode graded-index fibers have shown a nonlinear improvement in beam quality. Here, we harness this nonlinear phenomenon for fiber-delivery of nanosecond laser pulses. We built a photoacoustic catheter 1.4 mm outer diameter, offering a lateral resolution as fine as 30 μm within a depth range of 2.5 mm. Such resolution is one order of magnitude better than current multimode fiber-based intravascular photoacoustic catheters. At the same time, the delivered pulse energy can reach as high as 20 μJ, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of an optical resolution photoacoustic endoscope built with a single mode fiber. These improvements are expected to promote the biomedical application of photoacoustic endoscopes which require both high resolution and high pulse energy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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Gong, X.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
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Guenard, R.

Hau, W.

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Y. Cao, A. Kole, J. Hui, Y. Zhang, J. Mai, M. Alloosh, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 8, 2400 (2018).
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J. Hui, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, A. Kole, P. Wang, G. Yu, G. Eakins, M. Sturek, W. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 7, 1417 (2017).
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Liang, S.

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Ma, T.

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Mafi, A.

Mai, J.

Y. Cao, A. Kole, J. Hui, Y. Zhang, J. Mai, M. Alloosh, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 8, 2400 (2018).
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Maslov, K.

Mastik, F.

Millot, G.

Mocofanescu, A.

Nolan, D. A.

L. G. Wright, Z. Liu, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 10, 771 (2016).
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Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, E. Z. Zhang, L. V. Wang, and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991F (2011).

Peterson, P.

Rao, B.

Roy, S.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shalaby, B. M.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237(2017).
[Crossref]

Sharma, M. P.

Shaw, K. D.

Shung, K. K.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
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J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066001 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Slipchenko, M. N.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, L.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
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Springeling, G.

Sturek, M.

Y. Cao, A. Kole, J. Hui, Y. Zhang, J. Mai, M. Alloosh, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 8, 2400 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hui, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, A. Kole, P. Wang, G. Yu, G. Eakins, M. Sturek, W. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 7, 1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tonello, A.

van Beusekom, H. M.

van der Steen, A. F.

Van Soest, G.

Wabnitz, S.

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Oraevsky, E. Z. Zhang, L. V. Wang, and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991F (2011).

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

J. Hui, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, A. Kole, P. Wang, G. Yu, G. Eakins, M. Sturek, W. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 7, 1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wise, F. W.

L. G. Wright, Z. Liu, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 10, 771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wright, L. G.

L. G. Wright, Z. Liu, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 10, 771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

Xing, D.

Xiong, K.

Yang, H. C.

Yang, J. M.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Yu, G.

J. Hui, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, A. Kole, P. Wang, G. Yu, G. Eakins, M. Sturek, W. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 7, 1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. Z.

A. A. Oraevsky, E. Z. Zhang, L. V. Wang, and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991F (2011).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Cao, A. Kole, J. Hui, Y. Zhang, J. Mai, M. Alloosh, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 8, 2400 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hui, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, A. Kole, P. Wang, G. Yu, G. Eakins, M. Sturek, W. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 7, 1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066001 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 1591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, PLoS One 9, e92463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237(2017).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, Z. Liu, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 10, 771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

PLoS One (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simulation results of GRIN focusing of (a) a Gaussian beam and (b) an output beam from the step-index multimode fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Near-field beam profiles for different input pulse energies (intensity in linear scale). (a) The system setup of the fiber coupling and near field beam profile measurement. (b) Near field beam profile from a GRIN MMF. (c) Near field beam profile from a step index MMF fiber.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the PA endoscope. (a) Schematic illustration of the imaging setup with the alignment of various modules. Abbreviations: PG, a pulse generator; DAQ, data acquisition system; PD, photodiode; SR and RJ, slip ring and rotary joint; PH, pinhole; GMMF, GRIN MMF; ND, neutral density filter. (b) Architecture and photography of the endoscope. PM, prism; UST, ultrasound transducer. (c) The fiber optical rotary joint and slip-ring assembly and the schematic design of the fiber-optical rotary joint.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spatial resolution of a photoacoustic endoscope made with GRIN MMF and step-index MMF, respectively. (a) The photoacoustic image of carbon fiber taken by the endoscope with GRIN MMF. (b) The photoacoustic image taken by the endoscope with step index MMF (c) The transverse resolution of the photoacoustic image of the carbon fiber with GRIN MMF. (d) The transverse resolution with step-index MMF.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photoacoustic imaging of an iliac/common femoral artery stent. (a) Optical microscopic image of the imaged sent segment. (b) The schematic of the image acquisition method. (c) Photoacoustic image of a cross section of the stent. (d) Representative 3D photoacoustic image.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Photoacoustic and ultrasound images of the stent recorded with the catheter. (a), (b) Photoacoustic image with the GRIN MMF and lateral resolution, (c), (d) photoacoustic image with the step index MMF and lateral resolution.

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