Abstract

Laser-based infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by applying a tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a mid-infrared light source. The fast tunability of the employed QCL, combined with phase-modulated polarization, enabled the acquisition of broadband (9001204cm1), high-resolution (1cm1) ellipsometry spectra in less than 1 second. A comparison to a conventional Fourier-transform spectrometer-based IR ellipsometer resulted in an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by a factor of at least 290. The ellipsometry setup was finally applied for the real-time monitoring of molecular reorientation during the stretching process of an anisotropic polypropylene film, thereby illustrating the advantage of sub-second time resolution. The developed method exceeds existing instrumentation by its fast acquisition and high SNR, which could open up a set of new applications of SE such as ellipsometric inline process monitoring and quality control.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
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  7. D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.
  8. M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. O. Acher, E. Bigan, and B. Drévillon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 65 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Tomasi, F. Van Den Berg, and C. Andersson, J. Chemom. 18, 231 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Karger-Kocsis, Polypropylene: An A–Z Reference (Kluwer, 1999).
  15. C. Gasser, J. Kilgus, M. Harasek, B. Lendl, and M. Brandstetter, Opt. Express 26, 12169 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. D. J. Rowe, D. Smith, and J. S. Wilkinson, Sci. Rep. 7, 7356 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (2)

D. J. Rowe, D. Smith, and J. S. Wilkinson, Sci. Rep. 7, 7356 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Lüdeke, M. Pfeifer, and P. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5704 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Tomasi, F. Van Den Berg, and C. Andersson, J. Chemom. 18, 231 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. H. Korte and A. Röseler, Analyst 123, 647 (1998).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

O. Acher, E. Bigan, and B. Drévillon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 65 (1989).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

G. A. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surf. Sci. 14, 52 (1969).
[Crossref]

Acher, O.

O. Acher, E. Bigan, and B. Drévillon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 65 (1989).
[Crossref]

Andersson, C.

G. Tomasi, F. Van Den Berg, and C. Andersson, J. Chemom. 18, 231 (2004).
[Crossref]

Axtmann, F.

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berer, T.

Bergmair, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bigan, E.

O. Acher, E. Bigan, and B. Drévillon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 65 (1989).
[Crossref]

Boosalis, A.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bootsma, G. A.

G. A. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surf. Sci. 14, 52 (1969).
[Crossref]

Brandstetter, M.

J. Kilgus, G. Langer, K. Duswald, R. Zimmerleiter, I. Zorin, T. Berer, and M. Brandstetter, Opt. Express 26, 30644 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Gasser, J. Kilgus, M. Harasek, B. Lendl, and M. Brandstetter, Opt. Express 26, 12169 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, C. Koch, A. Genner, and B. Lendl, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XI (2014), p. 89931U.

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buerki, P. R.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Caffey, D.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Cattelan, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cobet, C.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cook, V.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Crivello, S.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Day, T.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

De Martino, A.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Drévillon, B.

O. Acher, E. Bigan, and B. Drévillon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 65 (1989).
[Crossref]

Drolz, A.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duswald, K.

Esser, N.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fischer, P.

S. Lüdeke, M. Pfeifer, and P. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5704 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fuhrmann, V.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Furchner, A.

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gajic, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Galliet, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gasser, C.

Genner, A.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, C. Koch, A. Genner, and B. Lendl, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XI (2014), p. 89931U.

Gkogkou, D.

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harasek, M.

Hemzal, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herbst, J.

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herwig, C.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herzinger, C. M.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hingerl, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hinrichs, K.

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, T.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Humlicek, J.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jungbauer, C.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karger-Kocsis, J.

J. Karger-Kocsis, Polypropylene: An A–Z Reference (Kluwer, 1999).

Ketelsen, H.

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kilgus, J.

Koch, C.

M. Brandstetter, C. Koch, A. Genner, and B. Lendl, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XI (2014), p. 89931U.

Konz, W.

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korte, E. H.

E. H. Korte and A. Röseler, Analyst 123, 647 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kratz, C.

A. Furchner, C. Kratz, D. Gkogkou, H. Ketelsen, and K. Hinrichs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lambrecht, A.

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

Langer, G.

Lendl, B.

C. Gasser, J. Kilgus, M. Harasek, B. Lendl, and M. Brandstetter, Opt. Express 26, 12169 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Brandstetter, C. Koch, A. Genner, and B. Lendl, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XI (2014), p. 89931U.

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lüdeke, S.

S. Lüdeke, M. Pfeifer, and P. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5704 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meyer, F.

G. A. Bootsma and F. Meyer, Surf. Sci. 14, 52 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Perkmann, T.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeifer, M.

A. Lambrecht, M. Pfeifer, W. Konz, J. Herbst, and F. Axtmann, Analyst 139, 2070 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lüdeke, M. Pfeifer, and P. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5704 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popovic, Z. V.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Posch, A. E.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Radunsky, M. B.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Röseler, A.

E. H. Korte and A. Röseler, Analyst 123, 647 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rowe, D. J.

D. J. Rowe, D. Smith, and J. S. Wilkinson, Sci. Rep. 7, 7356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saxl, O.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. De Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, D.

D. J. Rowe, D. Smith, and J. S. Wilkinson, Sci. Rep. 7, 7356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sumalowitsch, T.

M. Brandstetter, T. Sumalowitsch, A. Genner, A. E. Posch, C. Herwig, A. Drolz, V. Fuhrmann, T. Perkmann, and B. Lendl, Analyst 138, 4022 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiwald, T. E.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tomasi, G.

G. Tomasi, F. Van Den Berg, and C. Andersson, J. Chemom. 18, 231 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Den Berg, F.

G. Tomasi, F. Van Den Berg, and C. Andersson, J. Chemom. 18, 231 (2004).
[Crossref]

Volgger, L.

M. Brandstetter, L. Volgger, A. Genner, C. Jungbauer, and B. Lendl, Appl. Phys. B 110, 233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weida, M.

D. Caffey, M. B. Radunsky, V. Cook, M. Weida, P. R. Buerki, S. Crivello, and T. Day, in Novel In-Plane Semiconductor Lasers X (2011), p. 79531K.

Wilkinson, J. S.

D. J. Rowe, D. Smith, and J. S. Wilkinson, Sci. Rep. 7, 7356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup. QCL, quantum cascade laser; W, KBr window; AP, aperture; PEM, photo-elastic modulator; RB, razor blade; S, sample; A, analyzer unit; L, lens; MCT, mercury cadmium telluride detector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Ellipsometry spectra of anisotropic 6 μm PP films recorded in normal incidence transmission measurements with a Woollam IR-VASE (blue) and the presented QCL ellipsometer in sweep (green) and step and measure modes (red). The active groups responsible for the prominent observed features are indicated. QCL spectra were acquired in single measurements; Woollam IR-VASE spectra result from averaging 200 spectra.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized ellipsometry spectra for noise illustration recorded with a Woollam IR-VASE (blue) and the presented QCL ellipsometer in sweep (green) and step and measure modes (red). The SD of each spectrum is given below the respective graph.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Ellipsometry spectra of an anisotropic 6 μm PP film recorded in a normal incidence transmission measurement. During data acquisition, the film was stretched by an applied tensile force. The spectra were recorded in the sweep mode in less than 1 s per spectrum. The predominant orientation of polymer chains in advancing levels of distortion is indicated.

Equations (3)

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I det I 0 + I 0 J 0 ( δ 0 ) cos ( 2 Ψ ) I DC + 2 I 0 J 1 ( δ 0 ) sin ( 2 Ψ ) sin ( Δ ) sin ( ω M t ) I ω + 2 I 0 J 2 ( δ 0 ) cos ( 2 Ψ ) cos ( 2 ω M t ) I 2 ω ,
Ψ = 1 2 cos 1 ( I 2 ω 2 I DC J 2 ( δ 0 ) I 2 ω J 0 ( δ 0 ) ) ,
Δ = sin 1 ( 1 sin ( 2 Ψ ) I ω 2 I DC J 1 ( δ 0 ) I 2 ω J 0 ( δ 0 ) J 1 ( δ 0 ) J 2 ( δ 0 ) ) .