Abstract

This Letter reports on the generation of glass-based axicons realized at the wafer level by means of microfabrication. The technique is based on micro glass blowing allowing parallel fabrication of numerous components at a time. Blowing is achieved due to cavities containing a gas that expands when the wafer stack is introduced in a furnace. Such cavities, generated in a silicon wafer and sealed by a bonded glass wafer, act as pistons pushing locally the other side of the glass wafer where the micro-optical component profile emerges. After cavities’ removal by polishing, it is shown that such a component produces nondiffracting Bessel beams.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
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X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
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W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
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Brzobohatý, O.

Bu, J.

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
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B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, S.-H. Tao, J. Bu, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 987 (2006).
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Z. Cao, K. Wang, S. Wu, and Q. Wu, Optik 124, 3761 (2013).
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Chen, S.

Cheong, W. C.

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
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B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, S.-H. Tao, J. Bu, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 987 (2006).
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B. Dépret, P. Verkerk, and D. Hennequin, Opt. Commun. 211, 31 (2002).
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D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
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V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Donley, E.

E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
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D. Kuang, U. Ellmer, M. Gui, and Z. Fang, J. Opt. A 11, 085601 (2009).
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Fang, Z.

D. Kuang, U. Ellmer, M. Gui, and Z. Fang, J. Opt. A 11, 085601 (2009).
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Froehly, L.

Fu, J.

Gao, W.

J. Yin, W. Gao, and Y. Zhu, Prog. Optics 45, 119 (2003).
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Garces-Chavez, V.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
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Garliauskas, M.

Gauthier-Manuel, L.

Gecys, P.

Gedvilas, M.

Giessen, H.

Gorecki, C.

Gui, M.

D. Kuang, U. Ellmer, M. Gui, and Z. Fang, J. Opt. A 11, 085601 (2009).
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Häusler, G.

Heckel, W.

Hellmann, R.

Hennequin, D.

B. Dépret, P. Verkerk, and D. Hennequin, Opt. Commun. 211, 31 (2002).
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Herkommer, A.

Hofmann, U.

V. Stenchly, H.-J. Quenzer, U. Hofmann, C. Eisermann, and W. Benecke, Procedia Eng. 47, 64 (2012).
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Huang, H.

Jarutis, V.

Kitching, J.

E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
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Knappe, S.

E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krauter, J.

Kuang, D.

D. Kuang, U. Ellmer, M. Gui, and Z. Fang, J. Opt. A 11, 085601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kulin, S.

S. Kulin, S. Aubin, S. Christe, B. Peker, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, J. Opt. B 3, 353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

Li, Q.

Li, X.-F.

X.-F. Li, R. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. Crean, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, F.

Lorenser, D.

Lullin, J.

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

McLeod, J. H.

Melville, H.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
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Merz, P.

P. Merz, H. Quenzer, H. Bernt, B. Wanger, and M. Zoberbier, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 258–261.

Metcalf, H. J.

Müller, A.

Niu, H. B.

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, S.

X.-F. Li, R. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. Crean, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Orozco, L. A.

S. Kulin, S. Aubin, S. Christe, B. Peker, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, J. Opt. B 3, 353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

Pašiškevicius, V.

Passilly, N.

Peker, B.

S. Kulin, S. Aubin, S. Christe, B. Peker, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, J. Opt. B 3, 353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Perrin, S.

Philip, G. M.

G. M. Philip and N. K. Viswanathan, in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics (ICOP), Chandigarh, India (2009), paper D2.3.

Piskarskas, A.

Quenzer, H.

P. Merz, H. Quenzer, H. Bernt, B. Wanger, and M. Zoberbier, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 258–261.

Quenzer, H.-J.

V. Stenchly, H.-J. Quenzer, U. Hofmann, C. Eisermann, and W. Benecke, Procedia Eng. 47, 64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raciukaitis, G.

Rao, A. S.

Richardi, N. J.

A. Van Le and N. J. Richardi, “Axicons and methods of making the same,” U.S. patent9821522B2 (April16, 2012).

Rolston, S. L.

S. Kulin, S. Aubin, S. Christe, B. Peker, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, J. Opt. B 3, 353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rung, S.

Samanta, G. K.

Sampson, D. D.

Schmid, M.

Schwarz, S.

Seifert, A.

Senkal, D.

D. Senkal, M. Ahamed, A. Trusov, and A. Shkel, Sens. Actuators A 201, 525 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shkel, A.

D. Senkal, M. Ahamed, A. Trusov, and A. Shkel, Sens. Actuators A 201, 525 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shkel, A. M.

E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Singe, C. C.

Smilgevicius, V.

Spether, D.

Stabinis, A.

Stankevicius, E.

Stenchly, V.

V. Stenchly, H.-J. Quenzer, U. Hofmann, C. Eisermann, and W. Benecke, Procedia Eng. 47, 64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tao, S.-H.

Tellefsen, J.

Thiele, S.

Trusov, A.

D. Senkal, M. Ahamed, A. Trusov, and A. Shkel, Sens. Actuators A 201, 525 (2013).
[Crossref]

van der Straten, P.

Van Le, A.

A. Van Le and N. J. Richardi, “Axicons and methods of making the same,” U.S. patent9821522B2 (April16, 2012).

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol. 2.

Verkerk, P.

B. Dépret, P. Verkerk, and D. Hennequin, Opt. Commun. 211, 31 (2002).
[Crossref]

Viswanathan, N. K.

G. M. Philip and N. K. Viswanathan, in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics (ICOP), Chandigarh, India (2009), paper D2.3.

Wallrabe, U.

Wang, H.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, S.-H. Tao, J. Bu, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 987 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Z. Cao, K. Wang, S. Wu, and Q. Wu, Optik 124, 3761 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wanger, B.

P. Merz, H. Quenzer, H. Bernt, B. Wanger, and M. Zoberbier, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 258–261.

Wapler, M. C.

Weber, N.

Williams, D. R.

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol. 2.

Winfield, R.

X.-F. Li, R. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. Crean, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, W. L.

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol. 2.

Wu, Q.

Z. Cao, K. Wang, S. Wu, and Q. Wu, Optik 124, 3761 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Z. Cao, K. Wang, S. Wu, and Q. Wu, Optik 124, 3761 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, W. Gao, and Y. Zhu, Prog. Optics 45, 119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.-C.

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, S.-H. Tao, J. Bu, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 987 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zappe, H.

Zemánek, P.

Zeng, W. P. L.

A. K. Danyong and W. P. L. Zeng, Opt. Eng. 45, 45 (2006).

Zhang, L.-S.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, S.-H. Tao, J. Bu, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 987 (2006).
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W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
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Zhu, Y.

J. Yin, W. Gao, and Y. Zhu, Prog. Optics 45, 119 (2003).
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Zoberbier, M.

P. Merz, H. Quenzer, H. Bernt, B. Wanger, and M. Zoberbier, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 258–261.

Zou, H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

X.-F. Li, R. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. Crean, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A (2)

X.-C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, W. C. Cheong, J. Bu, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, J. Opt. A 9, 329 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Kuang, U. Ellmer, M. Gui, and Z. Fang, J. Opt. A 11, 085601 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B (1)

S. Kulin, S. Aubin, S. Christe, B. Peker, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, J. Opt. B 3, 353 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Dépret, P. Verkerk, and D. Hennequin, Opt. Commun. 211, 31 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. K. Danyong and W. P. L. Zeng, Opt. Eng. 45, 45 (2006).

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optik (1)

Z. Cao, K. Wang, S. Wu, and Q. Wu, Optik 124, 3761 (2013).
[Crossref]

Procedia Eng. (1)

V. Stenchly, H.-J. Quenzer, U. Hofmann, C. Eisermann, and W. Benecke, Procedia Eng. 47, 64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Optics (1)

J. Yin, W. Gao, and Y. Zhu, Prog. Optics 45, 119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. (1)

E. J. Eklund, A. M. Shkel, S. Knappe, E. Donley, and J. Kitching, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys. 143, 175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

D. Senkal, M. Ahamed, A. Trusov, and A. Shkel, Sens. Actuators A 201, 525 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

P. Merz, H. Quenzer, H. Bernt, B. Wanger, and M. Zoberbier, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 258–261.

G. M. Philip and N. K. Viswanathan, in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics (ICOP), Chandigarh, India (2009), paper D2.3.

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol. 2.

A. Van Le and N. J. Richardi, “Axicons and methods of making the same,” U.S. patent9821522B2 (April16, 2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sketch of Bessel beam formation behind an axicon.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication flow-chart of micro-optical components by glass blowing.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Sketch of an axicon after glass blowing, (b) etched patterns of the tested components.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Cross section of the reflowed stack. (b) Photography of a piece of wafer of fabricated microaxicons.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Profiles of (a) two- and (b) four-ring components (black, measured; red, fitted).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Longitudinally normalized intensity distribution of a collimated laser beam passing through an aperture (ϕ=1mm), a lens (f=25.4mm), and a two-ring-based axicon, (b) on-axis intensity, (c) transverse intensity distribution for z=9mm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Longitudinally normalized intensity distribution of a collimated laser beam passing through an aperture (ϕ=2mm), a lens (f=25.4mm), and a four-ring-based axicon, (b) on-axis intensity, (c) transverse intensity distribution for z=6.2mm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Dimensions [μm] of Etched Rings

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Table 2. Fitting Results for Fabricated Lenses

Equations (3)

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β=(n1)α.
ZmaxW0/β.
e(r)=e0Rctan2(α)1+r2Rc2tan2(α).