Abstract

We demonstrate that the effective 3rd-order nonlinear susceptibility of a graphene sheet can be enhanced by more than 2 orders of magnitude by patterning it into a graphene metasurface. In addition, to gain deeper physical insights into this phenomenon, we introduce a versatile homogenization method, which is subsequently used to characterize quantitatively this nonlinearity enhancement effect by calculating the effective linear and nonlinear susceptibility of graphene metasurfaces. The accuracy of the proposed homogenization method is demonstrated by comparing its predictions to those obtained from the Kramers–Kronig relations. This work may open new opportunities to explore novel physics pertaining to nonlinear optical interactions in graphene metasurfaces.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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