Abstract

Among quantum sensors, the single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has the highest sensitivity-to-size factor. For instance, a single-NV spin when used as a magnetometer could achieve sensitivities of the order of nT/Hz, while the dimensions of the sensor are merely atomic in size. The sensitivity is limited only by the photon shot noise. One method to boost the magnetometer sensitivity to pico-tesla scales is to use many NV defect centers as an ensemble sensor [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041001 (2015) [CrossRef]  ]. However, during the absorption-emission (fluorescence) optical cycles, the NV centers transfer a portion of the irradiation laser energy into phonons and heat the diamond matrix. This results in unintended fluorescence decrease, spin resonance lines shifts, and fluctuations. Hence, the advantages gained by packing a high density of NV centers are significantly reduced. Here we investigate the heat generation of ensemble NV centers in micrometer-sized diamond under 532 nm laser irradiation and its effects pertaining to sensing applications. These investigations help us to find strategies that mitigate the detrimental effects of heating and yet permits the use of ensemble NV defects for improved metrology applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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