Abstract

Photoacoustic (PA) endoscopy (PAE) has exhibited potential for providing the complementary contrast to available optical endoscopy methods, particularly for deep vessel imaging. In this Letter, a prototype PA endoscope with shape imaging was developed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, which utilized the water-balloon-based adapting boundary recognition technique to extract panoramic vascular networks layer by layer. Interestingly, the PA endoscopic probe consists of a low-colored, high-transparency balloon and a 20 MHz ultrasound transducer, which can identify the boundary and construct holonomic vascular networks layer by layer based on the boundary of the balloon with enhanced axial resolution. Phantoms and in vivo rabbit colorectal tests were performed to characterize and inspect the PAE performance. The imaging results demonstrated that the shape-adapting panoramic PAE opens a new avenue for improving the endoscopic imaging capability, holding potential into the colorectal disease detection and guiding treatment in clinical applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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Maslov, K.

Mattison, S.

Maxson, R.

McGuire, S.

S. McGuire, Adv. Nutr. 7, 418 (2016).
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Mutch, M.

Nandy, S.

Ntziachristos, V.

H. He, A. Buehler, D. Bozhko, X. Jian, Y. Cui, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 37, 1162 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 9, 219 (2015).
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V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
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Petersen, W.

Rais, R.

Rao, B.

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R. Lambert and J. F. Rey, Endoscopy 33, 348 (2001).
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D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
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Shung, K.

J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
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C. Li, J. Yang, R. Chen, C. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, G.

Song, L.

Y. Li, R. Lin, C. Liu, J. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, R. Q. Zheng, X. J. Gong, and L. Song, J. Biophotonics 11, e201800034 (2018).
[Crossref]

Staley, J.

Steenbergen, W.

Sun, C.

Taruttis, A.

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 9, 219 (2015).
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Wang, L.

J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
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J. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
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C. Li, J. Yang, R. Chen, C. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wassef, W. Y.

S. Han, A. Hsu, and W. Y. Wassef, Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol 32, 492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xi, L.

Xia, D.

Xie, H.

Xing, D.

Xiong, K.

Yang, J.

J. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
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J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, J. Yang, R. Chen, C. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yang, S. H.

Yao, J.

J. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.

Yu, M.

Y. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Jing, J. Chen, A. Heidari, Y. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 7102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, R. Q.

Y. Li, R. Lin, C. Liu, J. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, R. Q. Zheng, X. J. Gong, and L. Song, J. Biophotonics 11, e201800034 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Jing, J. Chen, A. Heidari, Y. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 7102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Leng, W. Chapman, B. Rao, S. Nandy, R. Chen, R. Rais, I. Gonzalez, Q. Zhou, D. Chatterjee, M. Mutch, and Q. Zhu, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 5159 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 918 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, J. Yang, R. Chen, C. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. T.

Zhu, J.

Y. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Jing, J. Chen, A. Heidari, Y. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 7102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Zhu, Q.

Zhu, Z.

Y. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Jing, J. Chen, A. Heidari, Y. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 7102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Nutr. (1)

S. McGuire, Adv. Nutr. 7, 418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Clin. Endosc. (1)

K. Karia and M. A. Kahaleh, Clin. Endosc. 49, 462 (2016).
[Crossref]

Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol (1)

S. Han, A. Hsu, and W. Y. Wassef, Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol 32, 492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Endoscopy (1)

R. Lambert and J. F. Rey, Endoscopy 33, 348 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Jing, J. Chen, A. Heidari, Y. He, J. Zhu, T. Ma, M. Yu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 7102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (1)

H. He, A. Buehler, D. Bozhko, X. Jian, Y. Cui, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 37, 1162 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

Y. Li, R. Lin, C. Liu, J. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, R. Q. Zheng, X. J. Gong, and L. Song, J. Biophotonics 11, e201800034 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Nat. Med. 18, 1297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 9, 219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Plos One (1)

J. Yang, C. Favazza, J. Yao, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. Shung, and L. Wang, Plos One 10, e0120269 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2014 (American National Standards Institute, Inc., 2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the system. (a) Schematic illustration of the imaging setup. PH, pinhole; FP, fiber port; DAS, data acquisition system; AMP, amplifier; GPU, graphics processing unit; MD, motor driver; RM, rotate motor; LM, linear motor; z represents the scanning direction; ρ means the radial distance; θ presents the scanning angle. (b) Structure of the probe. WH, water hole; AH, air hole; PH, plastic housing; WB, water-balloon; CF, ceramic ferrule; CL, collimating lens; AL, aspheric lens; UST, ultrasonic transducer. (c) Photograph of the probe.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Evaluation of the system performance. (a) Schematic diagram of the experiment. (b) Measured optical intensity distribution of laser beam at the focus. (c) RMAP PA image of blade formed by 480 B-scans. (d) FWHM of the Gaussian-fitted lateral profiles of the blade edge. (e) Typical PA signal and Hilbert-transformed signal. (f) Bandwidth of the transducer. (g) Transverse resolution change along the depth. (h) Sensitivity distribution versus the radial distance. FWHM, full width at half-maximum; EXP, experimental data; ESF, edge spread function; LSF, line spread function. Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Boundary extraction of the system. (a) 4000 system noise samples. (b) PA signal amplitude of the water-balloon versus the distance from the transducer and the boundary distance of the water-balloon.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Imaging evaluation of the leaf phantom. (a) RMAP of leaf phantom. (b) PA B-scan image of 180° angular FOV transformed to a Cartesian coordinate system. (c) RMAP image of a yellow dashed box at radial distance = 4.2 mm . (d) RMAP image of the first layer of the leaf phantom. (e) RMAP image of the second layer of the leaf phantom. (f) RMAP image of merged layers. Scale bar: 1 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PA imaging of an in vivo colorectum. (a) Histology image of a colorectum. (b) Cross-sectional PA image corresponding to the histology image. (c)–(e) 3D images of a vascular network in serosa and muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa, respectively. (f) RMAP image of a colorectum. (g)–(i) RMAP images of the dashed boxes in (c)–(e), respectively. LT, layer thickness. Scale bar: 1 mm.

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