Abstract

In this Letter, we combined a promising bioreceptor, a cocaine aptamer MN6, with an ultrasensitive optical platform long-period fiber grating (LPFG) to create a new cocaine biosensor. The cocaine induces a conformational rearrangement of the aptamer which changes the refractive index around the LPFG producing a measurable shift of the transmission spectrum. We were able to track subtle interaction between the receptor and cocaine molecules over a concentration range of 25 to 100 μM. The presented biosensor does not require labeling or signal enhancement, resulting in a simple user-friendly device.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
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I. Del Villar, O. Fuentes, F. Chiavaioli, J. M. Corres, and I. R. Matias, J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2240 (2018).
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[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

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2016 (3)

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, and M. Thompson, Anal. Chem. 88, 3098 (2016).
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L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

2015 (2)

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

K. Han, Z. Liang, and N. Zhou, Sensors 10, 4541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lim, A. Z. Kouzani, and W. Duan, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 6, 93 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, and A. M. Burda, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 55, 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

2007 (2)

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49(2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. N. Stojanovic, P. De Prada, and D. W. Landry, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4928 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abnous, K.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adamkiewicz, E.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anis, N. A.

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blaszykowski, C.

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, and M. Thompson, Anal. Chem. 88, 3098 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bokhari, S.

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bosch, M. E.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brennan, J. D.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burda, A.

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
[Crossref]

Burda, A. M.

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, and A. M. Burda, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 55, 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carrasquilla, C.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Celebanska, A.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

Celebanska, A. W. J. B.

M. Janik, M. Koba, A. W. J. B. Celebanska, and M. Śmietana, Sci. Rep. 8, 17176 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chiavaioli, F.

Chiniforooshan, Y.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

Chinnappan, R.

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coelho, L.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Corres, J. M.

da Silva Jorge, P. A.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Darwin, D.

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

de Almeida, M.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

de la Guardia, M.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Prada, P.

M. N. Stojanovic, P. De Prada, and D. W. Landry, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Debord, J.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Del Villar, I.

DesLauriers, C.

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, and A. M. Burda, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 55, 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Devine, P. J.

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dolatabadi, N.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, W.

Y. C. Lim, A. Z. Kouzani, and W. Duan, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 6, 93 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eldefrawi, A. T.

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Eldefrawi, M.

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eldefrawi, M. E.

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Eldefrawit, A. T.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eldefrawit, M. E.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Emche, D.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ensminger, J.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ezzati, J.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fernandes, J. R. A.

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuentes, O.

Garg, R.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gascoine, P.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, R. A.

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, and A. M. Burda, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 55, 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Górecka-Bruzda, A.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gouveia, C.

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

Gu, C.

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haddad, F.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

K. Han, Z. Liang, and N. Zhou, Sensors 10, 4541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hardwick, S. A.

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

He, M.

Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Helling, C. S.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hidding, J.

J. Hidding, Nanosci. Master Progr. NS1091 (2017).

Hong, S. W.

M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huestis, M.

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49(2003).
[Crossref]

Janik, M.

M. Janik, M. Koba, A. W. J. B. Celebanska, and M. Śmietana, Sci. Rep. 8, 17176 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

Jezierski, T.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johnson-Arbor, K.

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
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Jorge, P. A. S.

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. C.

M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koba, M.

M. Janik, M. Koba, A. W. J. B. Celebanska, and M. Śmietana, Sci. Rep. 8, 17176 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kouzani, A. Z.

Y. C. Lim, A. Z. Kouzani, and W. Duan, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 6, 93 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lacey, R.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

Landry, D. W.

M. N. Stojanovic, P. De Prada, and D. W. Landry, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4928 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leucuta, S. E.

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

Li, B.

Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
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Liang, Z.

K. Han, Z. Liang, and N. Zhou, Sensors 10, 4541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. C.

Y. C. Lim, A. Z. Kouzani, and W. Duan, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 6, 93 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loghin, F.

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

Long, F.

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lou, X.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Mao, X.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Marques, J. M.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Martinez-Rios, A.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, in Fiber Optics Sensors, M. Yasin, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 275–294.

Martins, M. C. L.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Matias, I. R.

Mikulic, P.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
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Moccia, F.

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mokhtarzadeh, A.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
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Montesarchio, D.

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
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Monzon-Hernandez, D.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, in Fiber Optics Sensors, M. Yasin, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 275–294.

Musumeci, D.

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nath, N.

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
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Neves, M. A. D.

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, and M. Thompson, Anal. Chem. 88, 3098 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
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Ng, A.

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, D.

M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. H.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
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T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

Ojeda, C. B.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

Papet, E.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
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Perreault, J.

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

Platella, C.

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Popa, D. S.

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

Qi, H.

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
[Crossref]

Queirós, R. B.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramezani, M.

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riccardi, C.

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

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D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Salceda-Delgado, G.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, in Fiber Optics Sensors, M. Yasin, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 275–294.

Sánchez, A. J. R.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. L.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Shi, R.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

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M. Janik, M. Koba, A. W. J. B. Celebanska, and M. Śmietana, Sci. Rep. 8, 17176 (2018).
[Crossref]

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T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
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M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. N. Stojanovic, P. De Prada, and D. W. Landry, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4928 (2001).
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Sun, T.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

Tang, Y.

Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49(2003).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M.

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, and M. Thompson, Anal. Chem. 88, 3098 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
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Tolba, M.

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Toppozadat, A. R.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Torres-Gomez, I.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, in Fiber Optics Sensors, M. Yasin, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 275–294.

Tripathi, S. M.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Viegas, D.

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

Vlase, L.

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

Walczak, M.

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wren, S. P.

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wright, J.

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
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Wrights, J.

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Wu, S.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Zhang, C.

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Zhou, N.

K. Han, Z. Liang, and N. Zhou, Sensors 10, 4541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zourob, M.

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anal Chem. (1)

D. Roncancio, H. Yu, X. Xu, S. Wu, R. Liu, J. Debord, X. Lou, and Y. Xiao, Anal Chem. 86, 11100 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

P. J. Devine, N. A. Anis, J. Wright, S. Kim, A. T. Eldefrawi, and M. E. Eldefrawi, Anal. Biochem. 227, 216 (1995).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

C. Carrasquilla, Y. Xiao, C. Q. Xu, Y. Li, and J. D. Brennan, Anal. Chem. 83, 7984 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, and M. Thompson, Anal. Chem. 88, 3098 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

Y. Tang, F. Long, C. Gu, C. Wang, S. Han, and M. He, Anal. Chim. Acta 933, 182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (5)

A. R. Toppozadat, J. Wrights, A. T. Eldefrawit, M. E. Eldefrawit, L. Johnson, D. Emche, and C. S. Helling, Biosens. Bioelectron. 12, 113 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Mokhtarzadeh, J. Ezzati, N. Dolatabadi, K. Abnous, M. de la Guardia, and M. Ramezani, Biosens. Bioelectron. 68, 95 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, R. Chinnappan, A. Ng, M. Tolba, and M. Zourob, Biosens. Bioelectron. 35, 308 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. B. Queirós, C. Gouveia, J. R. A. Fernandes, and P. A. S. Jorge, Biosens. Bioelectron. 62, 227 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. D. Neves, C. Blaszykowski, S. Bokhari, and M. Thompson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72, 383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cancer (Basel) (1)

D. Musumeci, C. Platella, C. Riccardi, F. Moccia, and D. Montesarchio, Cancer (Basel) 9, 174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Commun. (1)

Y. Li, H. Qi, Y. Peng, J. Yang, and C. Zhang, Electrochem. Commun. 9, 2571 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eng. Life Sci. (1)

Q. Wu, W. Ma, R. Shi, B. Zhang, X. Mao, and W. Zheng, Eng. Life Sci. 5, 466 (2005).

Farmacia (1)

D. S. Popa, L. Vlase, S. E. Leucuţa, and F. Loghin, Farmacia 57, 301 (2009).

Forensic Sci. Int. (1)

T. Jezierski, E. Adamkiewicz, M. Walczak, M. Sobczyńska, A. Górecka-Bruzda, J. Ensminger, and E. Papet, Forensic Sci. Int. 237, 112 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

T. H. Nguyen, S. A. Hardwick, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 255 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. N. Stojanovic, P. De Prada, and D. W. Landry, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4928 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Anal. Toxicol. (1)

N. Nath, M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin, and M. Huestis, J. Anal. Toxicol. 23, 460 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. C. Lim, A. Z. Kouzani, and W. Duan, J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 6, 93 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Coelho, J. M. Marques, M. de Almeida, J. L. Santos, P. A. da Silva Jorge, M. C. L. Martins, D. Viegas, and R. B. Queirós, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 087005 (2016).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Library (Lond). (1)

T. H. Nguyen, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, and S. A. Hardwick, Library (Lond). 7653, 76531V (2010).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49(2003).
[Crossref]

Nanosci. Master Progr. (1)

J. Hidding, Nanosci. Master Progr. NS1091 (2017).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Chiniforooshan, A. Celebanska, M. Janik, P. Mikulic, F. Haddad, J. Perreault, and W. J. Bock, Proc. SPIE 10323103234X (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Soc. Open Sci. (1)

Y. Qiu, Y. Tang, B. Li, and M. He, R. Soc. Open Sci. 5, 180821 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

M. Janik, M. Koba, A. W. J. B. Celebanska, and M. Śmietana, Sci. Rep. 8, 17176 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Song, D. Nguyen, S. W. Hong, and B. C. Kim, Sci. Rep. 7, 43641 (2017).
[Crossref]

Semin. Diagn. Pathol. (2)

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, A. Burda, and K. Johnson-Arbor, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 26, 10 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. A. Goldstein, C. DesLauriers, and A. M. Burda, Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 55, 6 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

S. P. Wren, T. H. Nguyen, P. Gascoine, R. Lacey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 193, 35 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 1121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sensors (2)

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, Sensors 7, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Han, Z. Liang, and N. Zhou, Sensors 10, 4541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, in Fiber Optics Sensors, M. Yasin, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 275–294.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scheme representing the LPFG probe functionalized with the cocaine aptamer MN6 and its conformational change upon binding cocaine.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmission spectrum recorded for 75 μM cocaine in PBS, raw data (red dots) and the fitted curve (blue line).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Transmission spectra recorded for 75 μM cocaine in PBS: the first (black solid curve) and the last measurement (25th, red dashed curve), and the difference between their resonance minima, 4.2 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Resonance wavelength shift observed between the 1st and 25th measurements recorded at the biosensor immersed in cocaine in PBS (25, 50, 75, and 100 μM).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Transmission spectra recorded in PBS after the LPFG functionalization process (black solid reference curve) and for the detection of 25, 50, 75, 100 μM cocaine (red dashed–dotted, purple long dashed, green dashed, blue dotted curves, respectively).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Calibration curve for cocaine detection at LPFG modified with aptamer MN6 and its linear range (insert). Measurements were taken in PBS.

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