Abstract

Properties of filaments ignited by multi-millijoule, 90 fs mid-infrared pulses centered at 3.9 μm are examined experimentally by monitoring plasma density, losses, spectral dynamics and beam profile evolution at different focusing strengths. By changing from strong (f=0.25  m) to loose (f=7  m) focusing, we observe a shift from plasma-assisted filamentation to filaments with low plasma density. In the latter case, filamentation manifests itself by beam self-symmetrization and spatial self-channeling. Spectral dynamics in the case of loose focusing is dominated by the nonlinear Raman frequency downshift, which leads to the overlap with the CO2 resonance in the vicinity of 4.2 μm. The dynamic CO2 absorption in the case of 3.9 μm filaments with their low plasma content is the main mechanism of energy losses and, either alone or together with other nonlinear processes, contributes to the arrest of intensity.

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References

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2017 (3)

Y. E. Geints and A. A. Zemlyanov, Appl. Opt. 56, 1397 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Voronin and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 7, 46111 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Voronin and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 95, 023826 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, B. Shim, D. L. Weerawarne, P. Krogen, R. I. Grynko, C.-J. Lai, F. X. Kärtner, and K.-H. Hong, Optica 3, 678 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, Opt. Express 24, 6271 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. K. J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Aleksandrov, N. L.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alisauskas, S.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

Andreeva, V. A.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, T. Popmintchev, S. Ališauskas, M.-C. Chen, A. Pugžlys, M. M. Murnane, A. Baltuška, and H. C. Kapteyn, Opt. Lett. 36, 2755 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

Baltuska, A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bejot, P.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

Bodrov, S. B.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

Cheng, Y.-H.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dubietis, A.

Faucher, O.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fibich, G.

Floery, T.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Geints, Y. E.

Grynko, R. I.

Henin, S.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. K. J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hertz, E.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.-H.

Houard, A.

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, Opt. Express 24, 6271 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ilan, B.

Jhajj, N.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kartashov, D.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kasparian, D. K. J.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. K. J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, M. Petrarca, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 3456 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolesik, M.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O. G.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krogen, P.

Lai, C.-J.

Lavorel, B.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
[Crossref]

Loriot, V.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Malkov, Y. A.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H. M.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[Crossref]

Milian, C.

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitrofanov, A. V.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Murzanev, A. A.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, Opt. Express 24, 6271 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Palastro, J. P.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Panagiotopoulos, P.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Panov, N. A.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Petit, Y.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. K. J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrarca, M.

Point, G.

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, Opt. Express 24, 6271 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Point, C. Milian, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, J. Phys. B 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, P.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 164102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, T.

Pugzlys, A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pugžlys, A.

Rosenthal, E. W.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saletsky, A. M.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schrauth, S. E.

Sergeev, Y. A.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

Shipilo, D. E.

N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, A. M. Saletsky, H. Xu, and P. Polynkin, Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. N.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, E. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tamosauskas, G.

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thouin, E.

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[Crossref]

Tsarev, M. V.

N. L. Aleksandrov, S. B. Bodrov, M. V. Tsarev, A. A. Murzanev, Y. A. Sergeev, Y. A. Malkov, and A. N. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. E 94, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vieillard, T.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Voronin, A.

Voronin, A. A.

A. A. Voronin and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 7, 46111 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Voronin and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 95, 023826 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, J. Phys. B 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weerawarne, D. L.

Whalen, P.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.-P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, J.-P. Wolf, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 38, 3194 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, M. Petrarca, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 3456 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

A. V. Mitrofanov, G. Andriukaitis, T. Floery, A. A. Voronin, S. Alisauskas, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. B. Fedotov, A. Baltuska, A. Pugzlys, E. A. Stepanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Layout of the upgraded OPA/OPCPA system and the experimental arrangement with an open-ended gas tube; BD, beam dump; KTA, Brewster-angle cut potassium titanyl arsenate crystal; CM1, spherical mirror; C1, open-ended gas cell; W1, CaF2 wedge.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectra and beam profiles recorded at the distance of 0.33 and 8.5 m from the spherical mirrors of (a) f=0.25  m and (b) f=7  m; the gray shaded area represents the original spectra; the spectra were recorded in the center and at the edge of the beam (indicated by the numbers); the red dashed line in the top panel (a) represents the transmission spectrum of a 1 cm thick BK7 window.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), (b) Correspondingly, the evolution of the radii of the beam in y- and x- directions at 1/e2 level and ellipticity along the propagation of compressed (open red dots) and stretched to >3  ps (open black squares) pulses, the solid blue lines represent calculated beam diameter and ellipticity evolution in the case of linear focusing with an f=7  m spherical mirror; (d), (e) beam profiles measured accordingly (from left to right) at the position of the focusing mirror, minimal beam-waist position, and at the distance of 8 m from the focusing mirror for (d) stretched and (e) compressed pulses.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Dependence of the maximum signal on the electrodes of the plasma capacity probe (open circles) and luminescence intensity (solid circles) on the strength of focusing; (b) dependence of the energy losses on the strength of focusing; the shadowed area corresponds to the focusing range at which losses decrease with the softening of the focusing.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured evolution of (a) the spectral shape, (b) the losses, and (c) the pulse duration and intensity during filamentation of 30 mJ pulses assisted by 7 m focusing; in (a), the distance from the focusing mirror is indicated in the panels; the area under the spectra are scaled to the pulse energy; the initial spectrum is shown by a black line in the lower panel; in the insets, the red part of the spectrum is zoomed with ×10 magnification.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ionization Potential (Ip), Concentration in Air (C), Ionic Plasma Signal (V), and Losses Measured After the Filaments Ignited in Atmospheric Gasesa

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