Abstract

Ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide lasers can lead to highly efficient and compact optical devices. This Letter reports an average lasing efficiency of 65%±2.5% from a multi-waveguide 2.5 mol. % ytterbium-doped ZrF4BaF2LaF3AlF3NaF (Yb:ZBLAN) chip in an extended-cavity configuration. A maximum output power of 750 mW with a lasing efficiency of 68% is also achieved. A monolithic end-coupled configuration reached a maximum output power of 784 mW with a lasing efficiency of 70%. The lasing wavelength is tuned from 1001 to 1045 nm in a Littrow configured cavity. A beam propagation factor of the lowest-order transverse-mode output was routinely achieved with an M2 of 1.15.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
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C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
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M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 34, 247 (2009).
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C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
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Beecher, S. J.

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J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

Çetin, B.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
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J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Chen and J. Aldana, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, G. Y.

Choudhury, D.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 827 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Duan, Y.

D. G. Lancaster, Y. Li, Y. Duan, S. Gross, M. W. Withford, and T. M. Monro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2315 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Mater. Express 3, 574 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elahi, P.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
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Erbert, G.

Fiebig, C.

Firth, J.

Fontaine, N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Genest, J.

Georges, T.

J. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, and T. Georges, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 270 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, Prog. Quantum Electron. 45–46, 3 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

C. Wieschendorf, J. Firth, L. Silvestri, S. Gross, F. Ladouceur, M. J. Withford, D. J. Spence, and A. Fuerbach, Opt. Express 25, 1692 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, Y. Li, Y. Duan, S. Gross, M. W. Withford, and T. M. Monro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2315 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Mater. Express 3, 574 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Palmer, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 21, 17413 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. R.

I. J. Thomson, F. J. Monjardin, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harder, C.

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hébert, N. B.

Hirao, K.

Holzwarth, R.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hönninger, C.

Hoogland, H.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Houde-Walter, S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Ilday, F. Ö.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

Kalaycoglu, H.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

Keller, U.

Kerse, C.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kesim, D. K.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
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Khurmi, C.

Krupke, W. F.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ladouceur, F.

Lancaster, D. G.

Li, Y.

D. G. Lancaster, Y. Li, Y. Duan, S. Gross, M. W. Withford, and T. M. Monro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2315 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.-C.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, J. R.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 827 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 34, 247 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mary, R.

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, Opt. Lett. 37, 1691 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, “Compact near-infrared 3-dimensional channel waveguide lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, 2014).

Miese, C. T.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Monerie, M.

J. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, and T. Georges, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 270 (1993).
[Crossref]

Monjardin, F. J.

I. J. Thomson, F. J. Monjardin, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Morier Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Obarski, G. E.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ohara, S.

Öktem, B.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Palmer, G.

G. Palmer, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 21, 17413 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Paschke, A.-G.

Paschke, K.

Payne, S. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Peskin, A. P.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Peters, P. M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Poignant, H.

J. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, and T. Georges, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 270 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Siebenmorgen, J.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, in Proceedings DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers: Applications and Issues (OSA, 1998).

Silvestri, L.

Spence, D. J.

Staber, P.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. Staber, A. Ramponi, L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077 (1988).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Thomson, I. J.

I. J. Thomson, F. J. Monjardin, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 1336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

Toratani, H.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889 (1995).
[Crossref]

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wieschendorf, C.

Williams, R. J.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

Withford, M. W.

D. G. Lancaster, Y. Li, Y. Duan, S. Gross, M. W. Withford, and T. M. Monro, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2315 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yavas, S.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşk, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Young, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. Q.

Zou, X.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889 (1995).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Yb:ZBLAN chip of 12 waveguides, each of which acts as a laser. They are all 12 mm in length. Distance from the center of the largest waveguide on the left to the center of the smallest waveguide on the right is 4.5    mm . The apparent shadows are due to crystal impurities within the glass. Inset: zoom in on a waveguide with a 50 μm scale.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption cross-section and normalized emission intensity profile (dashed: measured from 950–1100 nm, pumped at 930    nm ) of 2.5 mol. % Yb:ZBLAN.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Extended-cavity experimental setup: waveguide length = 12    mm , f = 10    mm , 40 mm, and 20 mm lenses. The input coupler mirror (IC) used was R ( > 99.5 % ) at λ s & T ( > 97 % ) at λ p . The output coupler mirror (OC) varied for experiments between T = 30 % , 10%, and 5%, 10 mm from the final lens. LP, long pass filter, cut-on 1 μm. (b) Littrow configuration where a 600 grooves/mm, 1 μm blaze grating has taken the role of the OC.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measurements showing variability in waveguide slope efficiencies and lasing thresholds using T OC = 30 % . Each waveguide was measured twice to show reproducibility of efficiency.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Waveguide #4 average of five slope efficiencies using OCs of T = 30 % , 10%, and 5%. Insets: near-field beam image 12    cm from T OC = 95 % and M D 4 σ 2 beam propagation factor of waveguide #4.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Waveguide #5 slope efficiency using an OC of T OC = 30 % . Inset: lasing near-field beam image 12    cm from OC.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Wavelength tuning result from Littrow configuration. Insets: normalized spectra (arbitrary units) for lasing wavelength of 1019 nm and near-field beam image 5 cm from the grating.

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