Abstract

We report on a method to increase the spatial resolution in a compact lensless microscope. A compact side illumination is fabricated to illuminate the sample with a collimated beam by diffraction from a volume phase grating. The wavelength of a semi-conductor laser source (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser) is tuned with the injection current to alter the illumination direction by wavelength selective diffraction from the volume phase grating. The angle tuning is such that several subpixel shifted digital inline holograms are obtained. The stack of holograms is then processed in a pixel super-resolution reconstruction algorithm. The amplitude of the sample is reconstructed with subpixel resolution over a large field of view (FOV). The technique is demonstrated on a 1951 USAF test target. A resolution of 2.76  μm, over a FOV of 28  mm2, is demonstrated for a device of <2  cm height. The original pixel size was 5.2 μm demonstrating the subpixel resolution.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Claus and J. M. Rodenburg, Appl. Opt. 54, 1936 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Guizar-sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, Opt. Lett. 33, 156 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Latychevskaia and H.-W. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 233901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Elad and H. Y. Or, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 1187 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 60, 259 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Antebi, Y.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Opt. Express 18, 11181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.

Choi, B.

Claus, D.

Cobra, D.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

Comunello, E.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Coskun, A. F.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Opt. Express 18, 11181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Demirci, U.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Denis, L.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Wavelets XI, SPIE’s Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, M. Papadakis, A. F. Laine, and M. A. Unser, eds., (2005), paper 59140J.

Ducottet, C.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Wavelets XI, SPIE’s Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, M. Papadakis, A. F. Laine, and M. A. Unser, eds., (2005), paper 59140J.

Elad, M.

M. Elad and H. Y. Or, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 1187 (2001).
[Crossref]

Elowitz, M. B.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fatemi, E.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 60, 259 (1992).
[Crossref]

Feizi, A.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, H.-W.

T. Latychevskaia and H.-W. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 233901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fournel, T.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Wavelets XI, SPIE’s Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, M. Papadakis, A. F. Laine, and M. A. Unser, eds., (2005), paper 59140J.

Fournier, C.

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Wavelets XI, SPIE’s Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, M. Papadakis, A. F. Laine, and M. A. Unser, eds., (2005), paper 59140J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (W. H. Freeman, 2005).

Göröcs, Z.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greenbaum, A.

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guizar-sicairos, M.

Heng, X.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hennelly, B. M.

B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, N. Pandey, and D. Monaghan, China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference (2009).

Inci, F.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Joyeux, D.

Kang, H.

Kelly, D. P.

B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, N. Pandey, and D. Monaghan, China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference (2009).

Khademhosseinieh, B.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koren, G.

Latychevskaia, T.

T. Latychevskaia and H.-W. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 233901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, L. M.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Lee, S. A.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lee, G. Zheng, S. Yang, and C. Yang, IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM) (2011), pp. 93–94.

Liu, G.

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monaghan, D.

B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, N. Pandey, and D. Monaghan, China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference (2009).

Moser, C.

Mudanyali, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Or, H. Y.

M. Elad and H. Y. Or, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 1187 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osher, S.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 60, 259 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ozcan, A.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Opt. Express 18, 11181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pandey, N.

B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, N. Pandey, and D. Monaghan, China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference (2009).

Polack, F.

Psaltis, D.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

Rostykus, M.

Rudin, L. I.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 60, 259 (1992).
[Crossref]

Scott, P. D.

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sobieranski, A. C.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Soulez, F.

Sternberg, P. W.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, T.-W.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Opt. Express 18, 11181 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tekin, H. C.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Thurman, S. T.

Unser, M.

von Wangenheim, A.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lee, G. Zheng, S. Yang, and C. Yang, IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM) (2011), pp. 93–94.

Yang, S.

S. A. Lee, G. Zheng, S. Yang, and C. Yang, IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM) (2011), pp. 93–94.

Yuksekkaya, M.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lee, G. Zheng, S. Yang, and C. Yang, IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM) (2011), pp. 93–94.

Zhong, W.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

M. Elad and H. Y. Or, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 1187 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lab Chip (1)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 11, 1276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, Light Sci. Appl. 4, e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e346 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, Light: Sci. Appl. 5, e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. (1)

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 60, 259 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Latychevskaia and H.-W. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 233901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, Y. Antebi, M. B. Elowitz, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16889 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 10670 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, B. Khademhosseinieh, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, Sci. Rep. 3, 1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. A. Lee, G. Zheng, S. Yang, and C. Yang, IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM) (2011), pp. 93–94.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, E. Comunello, A. Von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, 27th SIBGRAPI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images (2014), pp. 274–281.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (W. H. Freeman, 2005).

L. Denis, C. Fournier, T. Fournel, and C. Ducottet, Wavelets XI, SPIE’s Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, M. Papadakis, A. F. Laine, and M. A. Unser, eds., (2005), paper 59140J.

B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, N. Pandey, and D. Monaghan, China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Side-view hologram grating recording. The two beams interfere in the photopolymer, inducing a phase hologram grating.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Compact lensless subpixel resolution large FOV microscope sketch.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Wavelength shift versus driving current of the VCSEL.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sketch of the subpixel shift created by the wavelength selective diffraction which changes the illumination angle.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Reconstructed amplitude using 10 holograms (full FOV). (b) Crop of image (a) (FOV 0.1    mm 2 ). (c) Reconstructed amplitude using 1 hologram (crop of 0.1    mm 2 ). (d) Reconstructed amplitude from an HDR image using 10 holograms with different exposure times (crop of 0.1    mm 2 ).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Sketch of the two superimposed sample experiment. Sample 2 is placed on top of sample 1, and its smallest features are placed in order to avoid overlapping with large absorbing features from sample 1.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Reconstructed amplitude using 10 holograms of the test target situated at 7    mm from the camera. (b) Reconstructed amplitude using 10 holograms of the test target situated at 8    mm from the camera.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Hologram Shifts for Different VCSEL Driving Currents for a Sample-Camera Distance of 7    mm

Metrics