Abstract

An optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) for direct emission in the 740–790 nm wavelength region is reported. The gain structure is based on 12 AlGaAs quantum wells. We demonstrate wavelength tuning between 747 nm and 788 nm and free-running operation with a maximum power of 4.24 W (pump power limited) for a heat sink temperature of 14°C. This laser system addresses a spectral gap not currently covered by VECSEL technology and represents the most powerful VECSEL reported within the 7XX-nm wavelength region.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. Virtanen, T. Uusitalo, M. Karjalainen, S. Ranta, J. Viheriälä, and M. Dumitrescu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

G. N. West, A. C. Sills, and P. O. Leisher, Proc. SPIE 9134, 913406 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. R. Mazur, B. Klappauf, and M. G. Raizen, Nat. Phys. 10, 601 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. H. Mustafa, M. S. Jaafar, A. H. Ismail, and K. N. Mutter, J. Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 188 (2014).

A. Teppitaksak, A. Minassian, G. M. Thomas, and M. J. Damzen, Opt. Express 22, 16386 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Gold, Clin. Dermatol. 25, 443 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Shokrollahi, E. Raymond, and M. Murison, J. Surg. 2, 28 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

G. Erbert, F. Bugge, A. Knauer, J. Sebastian, A. Thies, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, and G. Trankle, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 780 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5781 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1 (1985).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abram, R.

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1 (1985).
[Crossref]

Agahi, F.

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

Allcock, D. T. C.

Anderson, N. G.

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

Baliga, A.

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

Beyertt, S.-S.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brauch, U.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bugge, F.

H. Christopher, E. V. Kovalchuk, H. Wenzel, F. Bugge, M. Weyers, A. Wicht, A. Peters, and G. Tränkle, Appl. Opt. 56, 5566 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Erbert, F. Bugge, A. Knauer, J. Sebastian, A. Thies, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, and G. Trankle, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 780 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burd, S. C.

Burns, D.

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5781 (1999).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

P. J. Schlosser, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, A. B. Krysa, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 17, 21782 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. K.

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor—Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials (Springer, 1999).

Christopher, H.

Cusumano, P.

Damzen, M. J.

Dawson, M. D.

P. J. Schlosser, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, A. B. Krysa, and M. D. Dawson, Opt. Express 17, 21782 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5781 (1999).
[Crossref]

Demaria, F.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dhidah, N.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Dumitrescu, M.

H. Virtanen, T. Uusitalo, M. Karjalainen, S. Ranta, J. Viheriälä, and M. Dumitrescu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G.

G. Erbert, F. Bugge, A. Knauer, J. Sebastian, A. Thies, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, and G. Trankle, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 780 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5781 (1999).
[Crossref]

Giesen, A.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gold, M. H.

M. H. Gold, Clin. Dermatol. 25, 443 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, C. J.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Härkönen, A.

M. Guina, A. Rantamäki, and A. Härkönen, J. Phys. D 50, 383001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hastie, J. E.

Hempler, N.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Holm, M. A.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1551 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5781 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, J.-M.

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iakovlev, V.

Inguscio, M.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ismail, A. H.

F. H. Mustafa, M. S. Jaafar, A. H. Ismail, and K. N. Mutter, J. Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 188 (2014).

Jaafar, M. S.

F. H. Mustafa, M. S. Jaafar, A. H. Ismail, and K. N. Mutter, J. Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 188 (2014).

Jeon, C. W.

J. E. Hastie, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, R. Abram, and M. D. Dawson, Proc. SPIE 5137, 201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jördens, R.

Kapon, E.

Karjalainen, M.

H. Virtanen, T. Uusitalo, M. Karjalainen, S. Ranta, J. Viheriälä, and M. Dumitrescu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kemp, A. J.

Kim, H.

Klappauf, B.

T. R. Mazur, B. Klappauf, and M. G. Raizen, Nat. Phys. 10, 601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

G. Erbert, F. Bugge, A. Knauer, J. Sebastian, A. Thies, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, and G. Trankle, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 780 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor—Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials (Springer, 1999).

Kovalchuk, E. V.

Krysa, A. B.

Kübler, T.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

F. Agahi, K. M. Lau, H. K. Choi, A. Baliga, and N. G. Anderson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 140 (1995).
[Crossref]

Leibfried, D.

Leinonen, T.

Leisher, P. O.

G. N. West, A. C. Sills, and P. O. Leisher, Proc. SPIE 9134, 913406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lorch, S.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lyytikäinen, J.

Maker, G. T.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Malcolm, G. P. A.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Mazur, T. R.

T. R. Mazur, B. Klappauf, and M. G. Raizen, Nat. Phys. 10, 601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mereuta, A.

Minassian, A.

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604 (1976).
[Crossref]

Moon, H. S.

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[Crossref]

Murison, M.

K. Shokrollahi, E. Raymond, and M. Murison, J. Surg. 2, 28 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mustafa, F. H.

F. H. Mustafa, M. S. Jaafar, A. H. Ismail, and K. N. Mutter, J. Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 188 (2014).

Mutter, K. N.

F. H. Mustafa, M. S. Jaafar, A. H. Ismail, and K. N. Mutter, J. Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 188 (2014).

Ning, Y.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Pabœuf, D.

Park, J.

Parrotta, D. C.

Paul, D. J.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Penttinen, J.-P.

Peters, A.

Pettit, G. D.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604 (1976).
[Crossref]

Raizen, M. G.

T. R. Mazur, B. Klappauf, and M. G. Raizen, Nat. Phys. 10, 601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ranta, S.

H. Virtanen, T. Uusitalo, M. Karjalainen, S. Ranta, J. Viheriälä, and M. Dumitrescu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Saarinen, J. Lyytikäinen, S. Ranta, A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, V. Iakovlev, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, Opt. Lett. 40, 4380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rantamäki, A.

Rautiainen, J.

Raymond, E.

K. Shokrollahi, E. Raymond, and M. Murison, J. Surg. 2, 28 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rinaldi, F.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 869 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saarinen, E. J.

Saeed, A.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

Savitski, V. G.

Schlosser, P. J.

Sebastian, J.

G. Erbert, F. Bugge, A. Knauer, J. Sebastian, A. Thies, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, and G. Trankle, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 780 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shih, K. K.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2604 (1976).
[Crossref]

Shokrollahi, K.

K. Shokrollahi, E. Raymond, and M. Murison, J. Surg. 2, 28 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sills, A. C.

G. N. West, A. C. Sills, and P. O. Leisher, Proc. SPIE 9134, 913406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sirbu, A.

Slichter, D. H.

Sorel, M.

Y. Ding, G. Ternent, A. Saeed, C. J. Hamilton, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, M. Sorel, and D. J. Paul, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), p. 1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Design of the active region of the gain chip is shown in this figure. Refractive index as well as simulated electric field distribution is plotted versus cross-section distance in the chip.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Long-term exposure (30 s, Canon EOS 650D) photograph of the AlGaAs-VECSEL operated in the linear resonator. On the left side, one can see the HR external mirror; on the right side, the VECSEL chip (origin of the intracavity beam) is mounted.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic drawing of the v-shaped cavity used for the tuning measurements (see Fig. 5). The beam profile (see Fig. 6) and the power transfer measurement at the fixed wavelength of 780 nm (see Fig. 7) were also taken in this configuration.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Power transfer measurement data of the free-running VECSEL, taken in a linear resonator. Inset: two typical laser spectra taken during the input–output measurement at low and high pump powers.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Several exemplary emission spectra, taken for different angles of rotation of the intracavity birefringent filter, are shown normalized to the corresponding output power (v-shaped cavity; see Fig. 3).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Typical beam profile of the VECSEL, taken from the outcoupled laser beam in the v-shaped cavity. Additional vertical and horizontal cross sections including Gaussian fits are plotted.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Power transfer measurement performed in the v-shaped cavity and (inset) a typical spectrum, here taken at an incident pump power of P pump = 14.4    W .

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