Abstract

New architectures of interference silver-dielectric multilayer filters inspired from induced transmission designs are investigated with the prospect of high-performance red-green-blue (RGB) complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging. The optimized designs provide combined colorimetric, signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity performances similar to the traditional organic color filters, but without the equirement of an external infrared (IR)-cut filter, which enables the integration of additional channels such as white or IR, in addition to RGB. Due to the sub-micrometer thickness of the stacks, this is a unique solution for fully integrated, high-performance multispectral filters patterned in very small pixels. The concept is demonstrated by a wafer-scale prototype with RGBIR filters patterned down to 1.4 μm adjacent pixels with up to 80% transmission.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

S. U. Lee and B. K. Ju, Sci. Rep. 7, 40649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

S. P. Burgos, S. Yokogawa, and H. A. Atwater, ACS Nano 7, 10038 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Park and K. B. Crozier, Sci. Rep. 3, 2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Z. Sadeghipoor, Y. M. Lu, and S. Süsstrunk, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829904 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

D. Yi and L. Kong, J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10, 033020 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Frey, P. Parrein, J. Raby, C. Pellé, D. Hérault, M. Marty, and J. Michailos, Opt. Express 19, 13073 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, Color Res. Appl. 30, 21 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. von Blanckenhagen and D. Tonova, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596317 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Tachibana, K. Kusunoki, and H. Ohsaki, Vacuum 74, 555 (2004).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Memarzadeh, J. A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3407 (1988).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

Abel-Tiberini, L.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alakarhu, J.

J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Ogunquit, Maine, USA, June7–10, 2007.

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, 8–11 June 2011.

Arbabi, A.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

S. P. Burgos, S. Yokogawa, and H. A. Atwater, ACS Nano 7, 10038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baxter, D.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Belkind, A.

K. Memarzadeh, J. A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3407 (1988).
[Crossref]

Berning, P. H.

Berthon, J.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Branke, J.

J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowinsky, Multiobjective Optimization (Springer, 2008).

Burgos, S. P.

S. P. Burgos, S. Yokogawa, and H. A. Atwater, ACS Nano 7, 10038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K. B.

H. Park and K. B. Crozier, Sci. Rep. 3, 2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dalal, E. N.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, Color Res. Appl. 30, 21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deb, K.

J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowinsky, Multiobjective Optimization (Springer, 2008).

Decroux, T.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Enokido, M.

H. Taguchi and M. Enokido, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, June8–11, 2011.

Frey, L.

Han, S.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herault, D.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Hérault, D.

Herrera-Ramirez, J.

Horie, Y.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Inaba, Y.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ju, B. K.

S. U. Lee and B. K. Ju, Sci. Rep. 7, 40649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamali, S. M.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kasano, M.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

D. Yi and L. Kong, J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10, 033020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koskinen, S.

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, 8–11 June 2011.

Koyama, S.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kusunoki, K.

Y. Tachibana, K. Kusunoki, and H. Ohsaki, Vacuum 74, 555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-S.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-Y.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. U.

S. U. Lee and B. K. Ju, Sci. Rep. 7, 40649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lequime, M.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. M.

Z. Sadeghipoor, Y. M. Lu, and S. Süsstrunk, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lumeau, J.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters III (Institute of Physics, 2001).

Marty, M.

Mathieu, K.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Memarzadeh, K.

K. Memarzadeh, J. A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3407 (1988).
[Crossref]

Michailos, J.

Miettinen, K.

J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowinsky, Multiobjective Optimization (Springer, 2008).

Mornet, C.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Murata, T.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohsaki, H.

Y. Tachibana, K. Kusunoki, and H. Ohsaki, Vacuum 74, 555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III (Academic, 1997).

Park, H.

H. Park and K. B. Crozier, Sci. Rep. 3, 2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parrein, P.

Pellé, C.

Pujol, J.

Raby, J.

Sadeghipoor, Z.

Z. Sadeghipoor, Y. M. Lu, and S. Süsstrunk, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Savin De Larclause, I.

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schanen, I.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, Color Res. Appl. 30, 21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shin, C.

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Slowinsky, R.

J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowinsky, Multiobjective Optimization (Springer, 2008).

Süsstrunk, S.

Z. Sadeghipoor, Y. M. Lu, and S. Süsstrunk, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tachibana, Y.

Y. Tachibana, K. Kusunoki, and H. Ohsaki, Vacuum 74, 555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taguchi, H.

H. Taguchi and M. Enokido, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, June8–11, 2011.

Tonova, D.

B. von Blanckenhagen and D. Tonova, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596317 (2005).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. F.

Tuulos, E.

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, 8–11 June 2011.

Vaillant, J.

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

Vilaseca, M.

Virot, L.

von Blanckenhagen, B.

B. von Blanckenhagen and D. Tonova, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596317 (2005).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

K. Memarzadeh, J. A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3407 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, Color Res. Appl. 30, 21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yi, D.

D. Yi and L. Kong, J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10, 033020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yokogawa, S.

S. P. Burgos, S. Yokogawa, and H. A. Atwater, ACS Nano 7, 10038 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

S. P. Burgos, S. Yokogawa, and H. A. Atwater, ACS Nano 7, 10038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, Color Res. Appl. 30, 21 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 754 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Memarzadeh, J. A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3407 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS (1)

D. Yi and L. Kong, J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10, 033020 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Horie, S. Han, J.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, Y. Kim, A. Arbabi, C. Shin, L. Shi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, and H.-S. Lee, Nano Lett. 17, 3159 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

B. von Blanckenhagen and D. Tonova, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596317 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Mornet, D. Baxter, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, Proc. SPIE 7876, 78760Q (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieu, M. Lequime, J. Lumeau, L. Abel-Tiberini, I. Savin De Larclause, and J. Berthon, Proc. SPIE 9633, 963321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sadeghipoor, Y. M. Lu, and S. Süsstrunk, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

H. Park and K. B. Crozier, Sci. Rep. 3, 2460 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. U. Lee and B. K. Ju, Sci. Rep. 7, 40649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Tachibana, K. Kusunoki, and H. Ohsaki, Vacuum 74, 555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

H. Taguchi and M. Enokido, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, June8–11, 2011.

J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Ogunquit, Maine, USA, June7–10, 2007.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III (Academic, 1997).

S. Koskinen, E. Tuulos, and J. Alakarhu, International Image Sensor Workshop, Hokkaido, Japan, 8–11 June 2011.

J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowinsky, Multiobjective Optimization (Springer, 2008).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters III (Institute of Physics, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Filter design types investigated. (a) 1M_H, (b) 2M_B, (c) 2M_H, and (d) 3M_H. The filter type name includes the number of metallic layers; H or B indicates a high- or low-index spacer layer. Layers with variable thicknesses between RGB filters are shown with arrows.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated Pareto fronts [18] in the (a) ( Δ E 00 , YSNR10) space, and (b) (Y/Y_REF, YSNR10) space for the four studied filter types, 1M_H (red), 2M_B (dark blue), 2M_H (cyan), and 3M_H (gray). The simulated performances of the organic color filters with external IR-cuts are plotted for reference (black) with decreasing thickness from 0.6 μm ( Δ E 00 = 2.15 , YSNR 10 = 66    lux , Y / Y_REF = 1 ) to 0.2 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated transmittances of example optimized designs of (a) type 1M_H, (b) type 2M_B, (c) type 2M_H, and (d) type 3M_H, simulated at 0° (thick solid lines) and 25° incidence in air (thin solid lines). Typical transmittances of RGB color filters with external IR-cuts at 0° are shown in dashed lines. Performances at normal incidence are calculated for each design.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured (a) effective refractive index and (b) extinction coefficient of Ag layers with different bottom and top interfaces, TiO 2 / Ag / TiO 2 (dotted green), TiO 2 / Ag / SiN (solid green), and SiN/Ag/SiN (dashed green). The modeling of Ag includes one Tauc–Lorentz and three Lorentz oscillators. Literature data are plotted for comparison.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Measured transmittances of RGBIR Ag-dielectric 1M_H filters patterned on a glass wafer with a 50 and 5 μm pixel pitch (i.e., thick/thin solid lines), compared with simulated transmittances (dashed lines). (b)–(d) Transmission microscope images of RGBIR filter mosaics with 50, 5, and 2 μm pixels.

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