Abstract

We report the design and fabrication of a compact angled multimode interferometer (AMMI) on a 600 nm thick N-rich silicon nitride platform (n=1.92) optimized to match the International Telecommunication Union coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexing standard in the O telecommunication band. The demonstrated device exhibited a good spectral response with Δλ=20  nm, BW3dB11  nm, IL<1.5  dB, and XT20  dB. Additionally, it showed a high tolerance to dimensional errors <120  pm/nm and low sensitivity to temperature variations <20  pm/°C, respectively. This device had a footprint of 0.02  mm×1.7  mm with the advantage of a simple design and a back-end-of-line compatible fabrication process that enables multilayer integration schemes due to its processing temperature <400°C.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (3)

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, Opt. Express 25, 27310 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Shang, S. Pathak, C. Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. J. 9, 6601805 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

N. Juhari, P. S. Menon, A. A. Ehsan, and S. Shaari, Proc. SPIE 9444, 944412 (2015).

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251116 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi and L. L. Goddard, Opt. Lett. 38, 3878 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 17, 14627 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, Electron. Lett. 36, 318 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

Baets, R.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 17, 14627 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Bienstman, P.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 17, 14627 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Charbonneau, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Clemmen, S.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Cloutier, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Davenport, M. L.

Delâge, A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Domínguez Bucio, T.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, Opt. Express 25, 27310 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dossou, K.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 17, 14627 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ehsan, A. A.

N. Juhari, P. S. Menon, A. A. Ehsan, and S. Shaari, Proc. SPIE 9444, 944412 (2015).

Erickson, L.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Gao, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, Opt. Express 25, 27310 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, R. Jenkins, and F. Y. Gardes, Opt. Lett. 36, 4488 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goddard, L. L.

Han, X.

Heck, M. J. R.

Hu, Y.

Inoue, Y.

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, Electron. Lett. 36, 318 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jansen, R.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, R.

Jian, X.

Juhari, N.

N. Juhari, P. S. Menon, A. A. Ehsan, and S. Shaari, Proc. SPIE 9444, 944412 (2015).

Kamei, S.

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, Electron. Lett. 36, 318 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, A.

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, Electron. Lett. 36, 318 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Krug, P. A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Lacava, C.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Liow, T. Y.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Lo, G. Q.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Martens, D.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, Opt. Express 25, 27310 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Opt. Lett. 39, 1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Menon, P. S.

N. Juhari, P. S. Menon, A. A. Ehsan, and S. Shaari, Proc. SPIE 9444, 944412 (2015).

Mitchell, C. J.

Morthier, G.

Nie, X.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Packirisamy, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

K. Shang, S. Pathak, C. Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. J. 9, 6601805 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Pathak, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pearson, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[Crossref]

Penades, J. S.

Petropoulos, P.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Piels, M.

Qin, C.

K. Shang, S. Pathak, C. Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. J. 9, 6601805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Roelkens, G.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ryckeboer, E.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 33 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1423 (2009).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Shaari, S.

N. Juhari, P. S. Menon, A. A. Ehsan, and S. Shaari, Proc. SPIE 9444, 944412 (2015).

Shang, K.

K. Shang, S. Pathak, C. Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, IEEE Photon. J. 9, 6601805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, J. F.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2011), Vol. 1, p. 1.

Stankovic, S.

T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A. Z.

E. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Z. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911K (2016).
[Crossref]

Sugita, A.

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, and A. Sugita, Electron. Lett. 36, 318 (2000).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the four-channel AMMI (de)multiplexer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated spectral response for the four-channel AMMI with optimized parameters θt=0.3  rad, Wa=7.5  μm, and WMDW=18  μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Microscopic images of the fabricated AMMI at the (a) input waveguides and (b) output waveguides.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spectral response of the demonstrated four-channel AMMI on the N-rich SiN platform measured at 20°C.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Sensitivity of the spectral shift as a function of the fabrication error in the width of the AMMI multimode waveguide observed in the O-band.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Sensitivity of the spectral shift as a function of temperature variations exhibited by the AMMI in the O-band.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Optimized Design Parameters for the Four-Channel AMMI

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the Characteristics of WDM Devices Operating in the Near-Infrared, Including Footprint, Channel Spacing, ILs, XT, Sensitivity to Dimensional Variations, and Sensitivity to Temperaturea

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Li=4neffWMDW2λi.
Nmax<2WMDWcosθtWa,
Δλmin>Wa+xmin4neffsinθt(λiWMDW)2.
δλiδT=λineffδneffδT
δneffδT=δneffδnSiNδnSiNδT+δneffδnSiO2δnSiO2δT.

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