Abstract

In this Letter, we report suspended silicon waveguides operating at a wavelength of 7.67 μm with a propagation loss of 3.1±0.3  dB/cm. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of low-loss silicon waveguides at such a long wavelength, with loss comparable to other platforms that use more exotic materials. The suspended Si waveguide core is supported by a sub-wavelength grating that provides lateral optical confinement while also allowing access to the buried oxide layer so that it can be wet etched using hydrofluoric acid. We also demonstrate low-loss waveguide bends and s-bends.

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2017 (5)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

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M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1122 (2013).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
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2012 (3)

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 37, 2883 (2012).
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L. Zavargo-Peche, A. O.-M. Nux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 123, 447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

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[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Amirtharaj, P. M.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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Asher, W.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2010), pp. 377–379.

Ballabio, A.

Bao, S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boodhoo, L. A.

Boulila, F.

Bouville, D.

Brun, M.

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bucio, T. D.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
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Campenhout, J. V.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, L. G.

Carras, M.

Chaisakul, P.

Chandler-Horowitz, D.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

Gao, W.

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gilles, C.

Goda, K.

Grand, G.

Grillet, C.

Guo, X.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

Hall, T. J.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2010), pp. 377–379.

Hu, T.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D.

Hudson, D. D.

Hvozdara, L.

Ilic, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2010), pp. 377–379.

Isella, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Janz, S.

Jonasz, M.

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kimerling, L.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kitamura, R.

Labeye, P.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Li, W.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. T.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C.

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, in 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2010), pp. 377–379.

Loo, R.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Maisons, G.

Malik, A.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Mitchell, C. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mittal, V.

Moghe, Y.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Moss, D. J.

Muneeb, M.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

Nedeljkovic, M.

Nicoletti, S.

Nux, A. O.-M.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. O.-M. Nux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 123, 447 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, C.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Paeder, V.

Pathak, S.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Penades, J. S.

Penadés, J. S.

Penkov, B.

Pilon, L.

Qiu, C.

Qu, Z.

Ramirez, J. M.

Ramírez, J. M.

Read, A.

Roelkens, G.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roux, X. L.

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shu, J.

Singh, N.

Singh, V.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Takenaka, M.

Tan, C. S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Vakarin, V.

Vivien, L.

Wang, H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

J. S. Penadés, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Opt. Express 24, 22908 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. O.-M. Nux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 123, 447 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Opt. Lett. 34, 1408 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Xia, Y.

Xiao, T.-H.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. O.-M. Nux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, Prog. Electromagn. Res. 123, 447 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, W.

Zhu, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation (front and top views) of the proposed suspended Si waveguide with subwavelength grating cladding.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Real part of the effective indices ( n eff ) versus the Si thickness ( t Si ) for the fundamental mode ( W core = 2.6    μm ) and the second-order vertical mode ( W core ) supported by the suspended waveguides. Simulation data: t BOX = 3    μm , n SWG = 1.72 . The real part of the effective index of the final designed waveguide with W core = 2.9    μm is also included. Insets: transverse field distributions for the first two modes ( W core = 2.6    μm , W core ) when t Si = 1.4    μm . (b) Power loss of the fundamental vertical mode of the suspended waveguide with W core = 2.6    μm and the finally designed waveguide as a function of the waveguide silicon thickness t Si .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) SEM image of a cleaved waveguide facet after fabrication. The BOX can be seen to have been completely removed below the waveguide, but the HF etching has created roughness along the etched edges. (b) SEM image of the focusing grating coupler and taper with the BOX removed. It has been cleaved perpendicular to the waveguide, part way through the grating. The grating was the widest structure on the chip at 40 μm width.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Waveguide cut-back loss measurement results at 7.67 μm wavelength for (a) Si waveguides with the BOX still present, and (b) suspended Si waveguides. For each set of points the transmissions have been normalized to the transmission through the shortest waveguide (0.02 cm) in each set. The red lines are linear fits to the measured points (cross symbols).

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