Abstract

We propose a Maxwellian near-to-eye display implemented using a multiplexed holographic optical element. Maxwellian configuration removes the focal cue of the displayed virtual image completely, presenting an always-focused image to the observer regardless of the focal length of the eye. The transparent property of the holographic optical element enables the optical see-through feature, making the proposed near-to-eye display suitable for augmented reality applications. The multiplexing of multiple concave mirrors into a single holographic optical element enlarges the effective eyebox, relaxing the limitation of the conventional Maxwellian displays. Optical experiment confirms that the proposed display can present always-focused images on top of the real environment with 9.2°(H)×5.2°(V) field of view, and 9  mm(H)×3  mm(V) eyebox.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Rho, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, Opt. Express 22, 6526 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. H.-J. Yeom, H.-J. Kim, S.-B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y.-M. Ji, S.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Park, Opt. Express 23, 32025 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Sakamoto, Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper FTu4C.2.
  9. A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 50, H87 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Westheimer, Vis. Res. 6, 669 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Fujimoto and Y. Takaki, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3A.4.
  14. T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.
  16. T. Levola and V. Aaltonen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 857 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Rho, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, Opt. Express 22, 6526 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Levola and V. Aaltonen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 857 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, Vis. Res. 6, 669 (1966).
[Crossref]

Aaltonen, V.

T. Levola and V. Aaltonen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 857 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bang, K.

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Banks, M.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bui, B.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

F. C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 60 (2015).

Chen, N.

Choi, H.-J.

Drettakis, G.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, N.

N. Fujimoto and Y. Takaki, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3A.4.

Georgiou, A.

A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hahn, J.

Hong, J.

Huang, F. C.

F. C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 60 (2015).

Jang, C.

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Jeong, Y.

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Ji, Y.-M.

Keller, K.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H.-J.

Kim, J.

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Kim, M.

Kim, S.-B.

Kim, S.-H.

Kim, Y.

Kollin, J.

A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koulieris, G.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lanman, D.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 50, H87 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Levola, T.

T. Levola and V. Aaltonen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 857 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Luebke, D.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mainmone, A.

A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

Miyauchi, N.

M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moon, E.

Okamoto, M.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

Rathinavel, K.

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rho, J.

Sakamoto, Y.

Y. Sakamoto, Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper FTu4C.2.

Shimizu, E.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and Y. Yamaguchi, Opt. Lett. 40, 1873 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Fujimoto and Y. Takaki, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3A.4.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, Vis. Res. 6, 669 (1966).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

F. C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 60 (2015).

Yamaguchi, Y.

Yamasaki, K.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yeom, H.-J.

Zhang, H.

ACM Trans. Graph. (5)

F. C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 60 (2015).

A. Maimone, D. Lanman, K. Rathinavel, K. Keller, D. Luebke, and H. Fuchs, ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman and D. Luebke, ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mainmone, A. Georgiou, and J. Kollin, ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

T. Levola and V. Aaltonen, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 857 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, T. Matsumoto, and E. Shimizu, Proc. SPIE 3956, 211 (2000).
[Crossref]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. (1)

M. Sugawara, M. Suzuki, and N. Miyauchi, SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 164 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vis. Res. (1)

G. Westheimer, Vis. Res. 6, 669 (1966).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Y. Sakamoto, Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper FTu4C.2.

N. Fujimoto and Y. Takaki, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3A.4.

C. Jang, K. Bang, J. Kim, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, Imaging and Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTu5A.32.

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Observed images while the focal length of the camera is changing. The displayed image remain clear, demonstrating always focused images of Maxwellian Near-to-eye display.
» Visualization 2       Observed images while the focal length of the camera is changing. The displayed image remain clear, demonstrating always focused images of Maxwellian Near-to-eye display.
» Visualization 3       Observed images while the focal length of the camera is changing. The displayed image remain clear, demonstrating always focused images of Maxwellian Near-to-eye display.
» Visualization 4       Observed images while the focal length of the camera is changing. The displayed image remain clear, demonstrating always focused images of Maxwellian Near-to-eye display.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Conceptual diagram of Maxwellian NED using a scanning mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Conceptual diagram of the proposed Maxwellian NED.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Eyebox enlargement by multiplexing multiple concave mirrors.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. HOE recording setup.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Focused spots in the eye pupil plane.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Observed image with different eye focal lengths (see Visualization 1, Visualization 2, Visualization 3, and Visualization 4 for movies).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Observed images at different eye positions.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Observed image of a resolution target pattern.

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