Abstract

Germanium is a material of high interest for mid-infrared (MIR) integrated photonics due to its complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility and its wide transparency window covering the 2–15 μm spectral region exceeding the 4 and 8 μm limit of the silicon-on-insulator platform and Si material, respectively. In this Letter, we report suspended germanium waveguides operating at a wavelength of 7.67 μm with a propagation loss of 2.6±0.3  dB/cm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of low-loss suspended germanium waveguides at such a long wavelength. Suspension of the waveguide is achieved by defining holes alongside the core providing access to the buried oxide layer and the underlying Si layer so that they can be wet etched using hydrofluoric acid and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, respectively. Our MIR waveguides create a new path toward long wavelength sensing in the fingerprint region.

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2018 (5)

2017 (3)

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J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, Opt. Express 24, 11855 (2016).
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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

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2007 (1)

2006 (2)

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D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123526 (2005).
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R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 38, 181 (2002).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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Goda, K.

Godejohann, M.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
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Guo, X.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
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D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2017).
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M. Krishna Murthy and H. Hill, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 109 (1965).
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C. Bauer, A. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, Appl. Phys. B 92, 327 (2008).
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Howe, R. T.

Hu, T.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Hvozdara, L.

C. Bauer, A. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, Appl. Phys. B 92, 327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 38, 181 (2002).
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Isella, G.

Jain, J. R.

Jetter, M.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
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Kang, J.

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R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
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Kitamura, R.

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D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2017).
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M. Krishna Murthy and H. Hill, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 109 (1965).
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Lee, K. H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Li, W.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, W.-W.

R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Littlejohns, C.

Littlejohns, C. G.

Liu, Q.

Lo, P. G.-Q.

Lu, R.

R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
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Ly-Gagnon, D.-S.

Mahon, R.

D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
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Marris-Morini, D.

Martini, R.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 38, 181 (2002).
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Mashanovich, G. Z.

Michler, P.

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
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Miller, D. A. B.

Miloševic, M. M.

Mittal, V.

Mizaikoff, B.

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 5562 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Müller, A.

C. Bauer, A. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, Appl. Phys. B 92, 327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

Nedeljkovic, M.

Ortega-Monux, A.

Osman, A.

Owens, N.

Paiella, R.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 38, 181 (2002).
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Passaro, V. M. N.

Penades, J. S.

Penadés, J. S.

Pilon, L.

Qi, Y.

Qu, Z.

Rabinovich, W. S.

D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
[Crossref]

Raichlin, Y.

R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, J. M.

Reed, G. T.

Rehm, R.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, J. Fleissner, J. Ziegler, W. Cabanski, and R. Breiter, Electron. Lett. 42, 577 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reid, L.

Roux, X. L.

Sánchez-Postigo, A.

Schade, W.

C. Bauer, A. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, Appl. Phys. B 92, 327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmitz, J.

R. Rehm, M. Walther, J. Schmitz, J. Fleissner, J. Ziegler, W. Cabanski, and R. Breiter, Electron. Lett. 42, 577 (2006).
[Crossref]

Set, S. Y.

Sharma, A.

C. Bauer, A. Sharma, U. Willer, J. Burgmeier, B. Braunschweig, W. Schade, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Müller, and G. Holl, Appl. Phys. B 92, 327 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheng, G.-P.

R. Lu, W.-W. Li, B. Mizaikoff, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, G.-P. Sheng, and H.-Q. Yu, Nat. Protoc. 11, 377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sieger, M.

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 5562 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sieger, J. Haas, M. Jetter, P. Michler, M. Godejohann, and B. Mizaikoff, Anal. Chem. 88, 2558 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 38, 181 (2002).
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Soler-Penades, J.

Soref, R.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stievater, T. H.

D. A. Kozak, T. H. Stievater, R. Mahon, and W. S. Rabinovich, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200804 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stirling, C. J.

Sun, X.

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Tan, C. S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 3D schematic [(a) overview and (b) front view] of the proposed suspended germanium waveguide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Cross section of the simulated fundamental TE mode at λ=7.67  μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Substrate leakage loss as a function of the air gap for the waveguide dimensions in Table 1.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fabrication process flow of the suspended Ge waveguides. (a) Initial Ge-on-SOI platform, (b) waveguide definition, (c) hole patterning and exposure of the BOX, (d) wet etching using HF and TMAH.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SEM images of the fabricated suspended Ge waveguides. (a) Cleaved suspended Ge waveguide facet showing the complete local removal of the BOX and Si layers. (b) Zoomed-in image on the edges of the wet etched areas. It can be seen that the Si substrate has been etched by 440 nm. (c) Top view of a 2D grating coupler (non-suspended). (d) Top view of a rib waveguide with holes alongside it.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Cut-back loss experimental results at 7.67 μm wavelength for suspended Ge waveguides.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Designed Dimensions of the Suspended Ge Waveguides at λ0=7.67  μm