Abstract

We developed a thin-film silicon waveguide with gradually changing thickness for generating a near-field optical spot. Theoretical studies show that the surface plasmons that are resonantly excited on the waveguide generate a hot spot with a wide spectral range. We experimentally confirmed generation of the near-field hot spot using continuous waves at 850 and 660 nm wavelengths. This waveguide, which can generate the enhanced electric field by normal incident of the excitation beam under situations of the practical use, is promising for broadband near-field optical technologies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

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2012 (1)

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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2009 (2)

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
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2008 (3)

N. Behr and M. B. Raschke, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 3766 (2008).
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2007 (3)

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C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrechty, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
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2006 (1)

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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
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2002 (2)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
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1972 (1)

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1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).
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Aizpurua, J.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
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Akimov, Y.

Albrechty, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrechty, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
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Aloni, S.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Ariese, F.

Bao, W.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Behr, N.

N. Behr and M. B. Raschke, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 3766 (2008).
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Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
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E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
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Bokor, J.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Bouhelier, A.

Cabrini, S.

A. Koshelev, K. Munechika, and S. Cabrini, Opt. Lett. 42, 4339 (2017).
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W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Caselli, N.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
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Chen, L. G.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choo, H.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
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Dong, Z. C.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrechty, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ertl, G.

B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, and G. Ertl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 096101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Frey, H. G.

H. G. Frey, F. Keilmann, A. Kriele, and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5030 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gage, E. C.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

García, N.

Gokemeijer, N. J.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1305 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guckenberger, R.

H. G. Frey, F. Keilmann, A. Kriele, and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5030 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, Adv. Mater. 19, 2209 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hongxing, X.

Y. Zhilin, A. Javier, and X. Hongxing, J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 1343 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hou, J. G.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsia, Y.-T.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, Adv. Mater. 19, 2209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Iannuzzi, D.

Intonti, F.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Itagi, A. V.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

Javier, A.

Y. Zhilin, A. Javier, and X. Hongxing, J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 1343 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ju, G.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kajihara, Y.

Karns, D.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Pen, Y. Pen, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y.-T. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, Nat. Photonics 3, 220 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kazantsev, D.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, Adv. Mater. 19, 2209 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, Adv. Mater. 19, 2209 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. G. Frey, F. Keilmann, A. Kriele, and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5030 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Komiyama, S.

Koshelev, A.

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135 (1968).
[Crossref]

Krieger, W.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Völcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walther, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kriele, A.

H. G. Frey, F. Keilmann, A. Kriele, and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5030 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kroo, N.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Völcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walther, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrechty, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, K.-T.

Luo, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, Nature 498, 82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mank, A. J. G.

Margheri, G.

Massanell, J.

Melli, M.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munechika, K.

Nakata, T.

T. Tachizaki, T. Nakata, K. Zhang, I. Yamakawa, and S. Taniguchi, Ultramicroscopy 186, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrechty, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, Nano Lett. 7, 2784 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ocelic, N.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ogletree, D. F.

W. Bao, M. Melli, N. Caselli, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, M. Staffaroni, H. Choo, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, F. Intonti, M. B. Salmeron, E. Yablonovitch, P. J. Schuck, and A. Weber-Bargioni, Science 338, 1317 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic and geometric configuration of the waveguide. Angles φ and θ are incident angles on the silicon–gold interface and the surface, respectively. The dashed line indicates the removed part of the silicon. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated waveguide. (c) Reflectance of the three-layer system with the 50-nm-thick gold film depending on the incident angle at wavelengths of 660 nm and 850 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Relationship between apex angle α and incident angle θ , which satisfies the resonant excitation condition of the surface plasmons. (b) and (c) Incident angle dependence of reflectivity for the wavelengths of 850 nm and 660 nm, respectively. For comparison, the origins of the angle are set at the minimum of | R | . The solid and dashed lines indicate the reflectivity at the silicon surface R ( θ ) and silicon–gold interface R ( φ ) , respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Absolute of the electric field | E | around the silicon waveguide simulated by the finite element method. (b) A magnified image at the end of the tip. (c) The tip radius dependency of the electric field. The electric field intensity of the near field was relative value to that of the incident light | E 0 | . Dashed lines are fitted by the exponential function. (d) A magnified image at the end of the tip with a flat gold surface. The gap width was 2 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) and (b) Intensity of the scattered light against the distance d between the tip and sample surface. (c) Intensity of the scattered light depending on the incident angle θ . Solid and dashed lines show the incident-angle-dependent reflectance when the divergence of the beam is neglected and considered, respectively. Assuming that Gaussian beam diverges with its cone angle 2°, the effect of divergence was incorporated by convolution with the Gaussian function.

Equations (1)

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θ = sin 1 ( n 1 n 0 sin ( φ RES α ) ) ,