Abstract

In this Letter, the design of a directional optical cloaking by a genetic algorithm is proposed and realized experimentally. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is combined with the genetic optimization approach to generate the cloaking structure to directionally cloak a cylindrical object made of a perfect electrical conductor by suppressing the undesired scattered fields around the object. The optimization algorithm designs the permittivity distribution of the dielectric polylactide material to achieve an optical cloaking effect. Experimental verifications of the designed cloaking structure are performed at microwave frequencies, where the proposed structure is fabricated by 3D printing. The imperfect conformal mapping from a large-scale permittivity distribution and the compensation of the remaining scattering by a small-scale permittivity distribution are the basic physical mechanisms of the proposed optical cloaking.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2018 (2)

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

R. Hodges, C. Dean, and M. Durach, Opt. Lett. 42, 691 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Vial, M. M. Torrico, and Y. Hao, Sci. Rep. 7, 3929 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

B. Vial and Y. Hao, Opt. Express 23, 23551 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. A. R. Horsley, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, Nat. Photonics 9, 436 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. D. Giovampaola and N. Engheta, Nat. Mater. 13, 1115 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 233001 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Urzhumov, N. Landy, T. Driscoll, D. Basov, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 38, 1606 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Andkjaer, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Andkajaer and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Xiao and H. T. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 33, 860 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

W. B. Weir, Proc. IEEE 62, 33 (1974).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

F. Monticone and A. Alù, Optica 3, 718 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 233001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andkajaer, J.

J. Andkajaer and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andkjaer, J.

J. Andkjaer, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 233001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Artoni, M.

S. A. R. Horsley, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, Nat. Photonics 9, 436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basov, D.

Botey, M.

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boyle, B. M.

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 233001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dean, C.

Driscoll, T.

Durach, M.

Engheta, N.

C. D. Giovampaola and N. Engheta, Nat. Mater. 13, 1115 (2014).
[Crossref]

French, T. A.

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujii, G.

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovampaola, C. D.

C. D. Giovampaola and N. Engheta, Nat. Mater. 13, 1115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

B. Vial, M. M. Torrico, and Y. Hao, Sci. Rep. 7, 3929 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Vial and Y. Hao, Opt. Express 23, 23551 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayran, Z.

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Herrero, R.

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hodges, R.

Horsley, S. A. R.

S. A. R. Horsley, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, Nat. Photonics 9, 436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, H. T.

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurt, H.

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

La Rocca, G. C.

S. A. R. Horsley, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, Nat. Photonics 9, 436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lan, L.

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Landy, N.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, B. G.

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Melanie, M.

M. Melanie, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms (MIT Press, 1999).

Miyake, G. M.

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mizuno, M.

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monticone, F.

Mortensen, N. A.

J. Andkjaer, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ong, C.

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pearson, R. M.

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sigmund, O.

J. Andkjaer, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Andkajaer and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

Staliunas, K.

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, F.

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Torrico, M. M.

B. Vial, M. M. Torrico, and Y. Hao, Sci. Rep. 7, 3929 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ueta, T.

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urzhumov, Y.

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vial, B.

B. Vial, M. M. Torrico, and Y. Hao, Sci. Rep. 7, 3929 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Vial and Y. Hao, Opt. Express 23, 23551 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, H.

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weir, W. B.

W. B. Weir, Proc. IEEE 62, 33 (1974).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

Yamada, T.

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zentrgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

B. M. Boyle, T. A. French, R. M. Pearson, B. G. McCarthy, and G. M. Miyake, ACS Nano 11, 3052 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, ACS Photonics 5, 2068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Andkjaer, N. A. Mortensen, and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Fujii, H. Watanabe, T. Yamada, T. Ueta, and M. Mizuno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Andkajaer and O. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021112 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Lan, F. Sun, Y. Liu, C. Ong, and Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentrgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, Nat. Mater. 9, 387 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. D. Giovampaola and N. Engheta, Nat. Mater. 13, 1115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 224 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. R. Horsley, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, Nat. Photonics 9, 436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Z. Hayran, R. Herrero, M. Botey, H. Kurt, and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. A 98, 013822 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[Crossref]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alù, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 233001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

W. B. Weir, Proc. IEEE 62, 33 (1974).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Vial, M. M. Torrico, and Y. Hao, Sci. Rep. 7, 3929 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Melanie, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms (MIT Press, 1999).

Lumerical Inc., http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation of the design approach. (b) Three-dimensional and (c) top views of the designed cloaking structure. The arrows indicate the direction of propagation for the incident plane wave.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated (a) magnetic field and (b) phase distributions with (c) their cross-sectional amplitude and phase profiles at the front and back cross sections are given for free-space propagation, the PEC object, the cloaked PEC object, and the cloaking structure without the PEC object, respectively, from top to bottom. The performance of only the cloaking structure (without the cloaked object) is given for comparison in the bottom row. The arrows indicate the propagation direction of the incident wave. The position profiles at the input and output of the cross sections are denoted by the dashed lines. The dashed circles and dashed ellipsoids represent the boundaries of the PEC material and of the designed cloaking structure, respectively. (d) Transmission efficiencies of three different cases are plotted, where the green dashed vertical lines indicate the selected design frequency of 10 GHz.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic representation of the experimental setup and (b) a photo of the fabricated cloaking structure with a cylindrical brass object which was used as the PEC object. (c) Magnetic field and (d) phase distributions of scatterings due to the PEC material (top) and the correction of the plane wave by the cloaking structure (bottom) at the output plane. (e) Experimentally measured cross-sectional amplitude and phase profiles. (f) Measured transmission efficiency of the cloaking structure with the PEC (brass) object placed at the middle of the structure.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H error = y ( | H z ( x in , y ) H ¯ z ( x in , y ) | + | H z ( x out , y ) H ¯ z ( x out , y ) | ) ,
φ error = y ( | φ z ( x in , y ) φ ¯ z ( x in , y ) | + | φ z ( x out , y ) φ ¯ z ( x out , y ) | ) ,
f cost = H error + φ error T .

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