Abstract

We present a time-gated Raman micro-spectroscopy technique suitable for fast Raman mapping of samples eliciting large laser-induced fluorescence backgrounds. To achieve the required time resolution for effective fluorescence rejection, a picosecond pulsed laser and a single-photon avalanche diode were used. A module consisting of a spectrometer, digital micromirror device, and two prisms was used for high-resolution spectral filtering and multiplexing, which is required for a high chemical specificity and short integration times. With this instrument, we demonstrated time-gated Raman imaging of highly fluorescent samples, achieving acquisition times as short as 3 min for 40×40 pixel resolution images.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  4. S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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2018 (4)

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Sinjab, D. Awuah, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, A. M. Ghaemmaghami, and I. Notingher, Opt. Express 26, 25211 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. G. Rehrauer, V. C. Dinh, B. R. Mankani, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 69 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

D. W. S. Shipp, F. S. Sinjab, and N. Notingher, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wei, S. Chen, and Q. Liu, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50, 387 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, Opt. Express 21, 31632 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. T. Quyen, E. Da Silva, N. Q. Dao, and M. D. Jouan, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 273 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2001 (1)

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1977 (1)

S. Burgess and I. W. Shepherd, J. Phys. E 10, 617 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ariese, F.

Ashok, P. C.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Awuah, D.

Ben-Amotz, D.

O. G. Rehrauer, V. C. Dinh, B. R. Mankani, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 69 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergner, N.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blacksberg, J.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bouzy, P.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Buijs, J. B.

Burgess, S.

S. Burgess and I. W. Shepherd, J. Phys. E 10, 617 (1977).
[Crossref]

Buzzard, G. T.

O. G. Rehrauer, V. C. Dinh, B. R. Mankani, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 69 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Charbon, E.

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

D. Wei, S. Chen, and Q. Liu, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50, 387 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clement, J.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Da Silva, E.

Dao, N. Q.

de Aguiar, H. B.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dinh, V. C.

Dochow, S.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Efremov, E. V.

Ghaemmaghami, A. M.

Gibson, G.

Gooijer, C.

Green, E. M.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Holma, J.

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jouan, M. D.

Keränen, P.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, Opt. Express 21, 31632 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kögler, M.

Kostamovaara, J.

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, Opt. Express 21, 31632 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krafft, C.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwok, W. M.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liao, Z.

Lindner, S.

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

D. Wei, S. Chen, and Q. Liu, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50, 387 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lucier, B. J.

O. G. Rehrauer, V. C. Dinh, B. R. Mankani, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Spectrosc. 72, 69 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mankani, B. R.

Marchington, R.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marguet, D.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, Y.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matousek, P.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, and A. W. Parker, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 1485 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mazilu, M.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Member, S.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nissinen, I.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, Opt. Express 21, 31632 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nissinen, J.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, Opt. Express 21, 31632 (2013).
[Crossref]

Notingher, I.

Notingher, N.

D. W. S. Shipp, F. S. Sinjab, and N. Notingher, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Parker, A. W.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, and A. W. Parker, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 1485 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pavia, J. M.

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

Popp, J.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Praveen, B. B.

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quyen, N. T.

Rehrauer, O. G.

Rigneault, H.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scandini, M.

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, D. E.

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scotté, C.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shepard, K. L.

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, I. W.

S. Burgess and I. W. Shepherd, J. Phys. E 10, 617 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shipp, D. W. S.

D. W. S. Shipp, F. S. Sinjab, and N. Notingher, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sinjab, F.

Sinjab, F. S.

D. W. S. Shipp, F. S. Sinjab, and N. Notingher, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stone, N.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stoppa, D.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tenhunen, J.

Toner, W. T.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

Towrie, M.

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, and A. W. Parker, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 1485 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vergnole, S.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, D.

D. Wei, S. Chen, and Q. Liu, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50, 387 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilcox, D. S.

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winlove, C. P.

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

D. W. S. Shipp, F. S. Sinjab, and N. Notingher, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

C. Scotté, H. B. de Aguiar, D. Marguet, E. M. Green, P. Bouzy, S. Vergnole, C. P. Winlove, N. Stone, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 90, 7197 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

D. S. Wilcox, G. T. Buzzard, B. J. Lucier, P. Wang, and D. Ben-Amotz, Anal. Chim. Acta 755, 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anal. Methods (1)

S. Dochow, N. Bergner, C. Krafft, J. Clement, M. Mazilu, B. B. Praveen, P. C. Ashok, R. Marchington, K. Dholakia, and J. Popp, Anal. Methods 5, 4608 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

D. Wei, S. Chen, and Q. Liu, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50, 387 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49, 179 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. E. Schwartz, E. Charbon, and K. L. Shepard, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Pavia, M. Scandini, S. Lindner, M. Wolf, and E. Charbon, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 2406 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, P. Keränen, D. Stoppa, and S. Member, IEEE Sens. J. 18, 3789 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, and S. Member, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 66, 1837 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. E (1)

S. Burgess and I. W. Shepherd, J. Phys. E 10, 617 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

P. Matousek, M. Towrie, C. Ma, W. M. Kwok, D. Phillips, W. T. Toner, and A. W. Parker, J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 983 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic description of the instrument (not to scale). DMD, digital micromirror device; SPAD, single-photon avalanche photodiode; TDC, time-to-digital converter; L1, L2, L3, L4, lenses; P1, P2, prisms; M, mirror; LPF, 780 nm long-pass filter; x, y, microscope translation stage.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Comparison between the Raman spectra of a PS sample acquired with the conventional CCD and with the new setup in the DMD scanning mode without time-gating (all time components integrated). (b) Same as (a) but after a drop of a red 730 dye (lifetime 1  ns) was added on the PS. The time distribution of the detected photons before (red) and after adding the fluorescent dye (gray) is presented on the right. (c) Time-gated Raman spectra of the PS/dye acquired in the DMD scanning mode. Acquisition time: 200 s.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Bright-field image of the Tylenol (paracetamol) and stilbene powder on a glass coverslip (mapping area 120  μm×120  μm). (b) Time-gated spectra of stilbene (circle) and Tylenol (triangle). The bands used for multiplexing are highlighted. (c) Time-gated Raman spectra at the same locations after the addition of the fluorescing dye on top of the sample. (d) Time-gated Raman maps acquired in the DMD multiplexing mode corresponding to the Tylenol (left) and stilbene (right) bands. Acquisition times: 3 min for stilbene maps, 27 min for the Tylenol maps. (e) Combined pseudo-color Raman map: Tylenol (purple) and stilbene (green); the time gate was 120 ps for Tylenol and 160 ps for stilbene; total time, 30 min.