Abstract

We investigate the formation, propagation, and interaction of femtosecond laser-induced flows of compressed air at a water/air interface by recording the transient reflectivity of shockwaves. Subsonic fronts of compressed air and weak shockwaves can be hard to detect due to their inherently subtle change of refractive index. Therefore, we study these weak flows by looking at the interaction dynamics of two and four shockwaves simultaneously produced at adjacent locations. An analytic model is used to retrieve the velocity and position of the shockwave from the experimental results. The use of multi-spot excitation opens up a versatile method to further investigate and understand the physical mechanisms contributing to photomechanical tissue damage during femtosecond-laser-based surgery and to study the fluid dynamics of complex systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M.-T. Kim, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 10, 196 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. H. Zhang, D. M. Krol, J. I. Dijkhuis, and D. van Oosten, Opt. Lett. 38, 5032 (2013).
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  7. D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, C. Favre, S. C. Hill, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 28, 206 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
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  13. T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Strycker, M. Springer, A. Traverso, A. Kolomenskii, G. Kattawar, and A. Sokolov, Opt. Express 21, 23772 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (CRC Press, 1993).

2018 (1)

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Anisimov, S.

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

Apitz, I.

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arnold, N.

N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balling, P.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bialkowski, J.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bor, Z.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

Brumfield, B. E.

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cannon, B. D.

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

Courvoisier, F.

de la Cruz, A. R.

Dijkhuis, J. I.

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[Crossref]

Favre, C.

Freidank, S.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Galvan-Sosa, M.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Lechuga, M.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glezer, E. N.

Götte, N.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J.

N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
[Crossref]

Haahr-Lillevang, L.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harilal, S. S.

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

Heitz, J.

N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Rueda, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hill, S. C.

Hu, X. H.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ito, Y.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jelzow, N.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G.

Kim, A. M.-T.

Köhler, J.

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A.

Krasinski, J. S.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Krol, D. M.

Krueger, R. R.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.-X.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Linz, N.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. T.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phillips, M. C.

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

Puerto, D.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Radzewicz, C.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rethfeld, B.

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rowsey, J. J.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sarpe, C.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

Sedov, L. I.

L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (CRC Press, 1993).

Senftleben, A.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, A. R. de la Cruz, M. Garcia-Lechuga, and J. Solis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 150 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Springer, M.

Stonecipher, K. G.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Strycker, B.

Tanabe, R.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Traverso, A.

Trickl, T.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Turi, L.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

van Oosten, D.

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vogelmann, H.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

von der Linde, D.

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Winkler, T.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.-P.

Wollenhaupt, M.

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zielinski, B.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, B. D. Cannon, and M. C. Phillips, Anal. Chem. 88, 2296 (2016). PMID: 26732866.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (3)

B. Rethfeld, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, and S. Anisimov, Appl. Phys. A 79, 767 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Arnold, J. Gruber, and J. Heitz, Appl. Phys. A 69, S87 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, M. Galvan-Sosa, and J. Solis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cornea (1)

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (CRC Press, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Scheme of the experimental setup. (b) Transient reflectivity images of a variety of shocks. Note that all the images were acquired at a delay of 10 ns using a fluence of 18    J / cm 2 , except for single beam illumination, which was recorded at a 4 ns delay time using a fluence of 22    J / cm 2 .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fs-laser-induced electron plasma, vapor expansion, and shockwave formation during a double excitation experiment.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Snapshot of the vapor propagation and shock formation at 10 ns time delay. (b) Geometrical scheme during double pulse excitation. (c) Elongated shockwave length and compressed gas front radius as a function of the delay time. (d) Compressed air front radial velocity as a function of time.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Femtosecond-laser-induced electron plasma, vapor expansion, and shockwave formation during a quadruple pump experiment.

Equations (3)

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v l ( L / 2 , t ) = ( | v r u ( t ) | cos α ( t ) + | v r d ( t ) | cos α ( t ) ) ,
| r s ( t ) | = h o 2 4 + L ( t ) 2 4 | r s ( t ) | = A ( E / ρ ) 1 5 t 2 5 ,
| v r ( t ) | = | r ˙ s ( t ) | .

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