Abstract

We present a forward-viewing fiber scanning endoscope (FSE) for high-speed volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT). The reduction in size of the probe was achieved by substituting the focusing optics by an all-fiber-based imaging system which consists of a combination of scanning single-mode fibers, a glass spacer, made from a step-index multi-mode fiber, and a gradient-index fiber. A lateral resolution of 11 μm was achieved at a working distance of 1.2 mm. The newly designed piezo-based FSE has an outer diameter of 1.6 mm and a rigid length of 13.5 mm. By moving the whole imaging optic in spirals for scanning the sample, the beam quality remains constant over the entire field of view with a diameter of 0.8 mm. The scanning frequency was adjusted to 1.22 kHz for use with a 3.28 MHz Fourier domain mode locked OCT system. Densely sampled volumes have been imaged at a rate of 6 volumes per second.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Rapid scanning catheterscope for expanded forward-view volumetric imaging with optical coherence tomography

Kristen L. Lurie, Abhijit A. Gurjarpadhye, Eric J. Seibel, and Audrey K. Ellerbee
Opt. Lett. 40(13) 3165-3168 (2015)

Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging

Li Huo, Jiefeng Xi, Yicong Wu, and Xingde Li
Opt. Express 18(14) 14375-14384 (2010)

Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography

Ki Hean Kim, B. Hyle Park, Gopi N. Maguluri, Tom W. Lee, Fran J. Rogomentich, Mirela G. Bancu, Brett E. Bouma, Johannes F. de Boer, and Jonathan J. Bernstein
Opt. Express 15(26) 18130-18140 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2405 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W.-Y. Oh, Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 223 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Wang, T. Pfeiffer, E. Regar, W. Wieser, H. van Beusekom, C. T. Lancee, G. Springeling, I. Krabbendam, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 5021 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Liang, Z. Wang, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optica 5, 36 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1565 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, and K.-H. Jeong, Opt. Express 26, 4780 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 31, 1076 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, Opt. Express 18, 14375 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. L. Lurie, A. A. Gurjarpadhye, E. J. Seibel, and A. K. Ellerbee, Opt. Lett. 40, 3165 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 42, 3193 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. J. Engelbrecht, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Express 16, 5556 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 244, 113 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (4)

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2405 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 42, 3193 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 244, 113 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ahsen, O. O.

Ataman, C.

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W.-Y. Oh, Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 223 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cable, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cho, H. S.

Cobb, M. J.

Crossman-Bosworth, J. L.

E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dan-Chin-Yu, A. V.

Draxinger, W.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Engelbrecht, C. J.

Fedder, G. K.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Giacomelli, M. G.

Gora, M. J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gurjarpadhye, A. A.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Hwang, K.

Jang, S.-J.

Jayaraman, V.

Jeong, K.-H.

Johnston, R. S.

Kim, K.

Kimmey, M. B.

Kirk, R. W.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1565 (2012).
[Crossref]

Klein, T.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krabbendam, I.

Kretschmer, S.

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lancee, C. T.

Lee, H.-C.

Li, X.

Liang, K.

Liang, W.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Lorenser, D.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lurie, K. L.

MacDonald, D. J.

Mashimo, H.

McLaughlin, R. A.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1565 (2012).
[Crossref]

Myaing, M. T.

Myers, J. A.

E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oh, W.-Y.

Pan, Y.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pettermann, M.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, T.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Potsaid, B. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Quirk, B. C.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Regar, E.

Sampson, D. D.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Yeo, R. A. McLaughlin, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1565 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Seibel, E. J.

Seo, Y.-H.

Shishkov, M.

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
[Crossref]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Springeling, G.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

Swanson, E. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2405 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.-H.

van Beusekom, H.

van der Steen, A. F. W.

van Soest, G.

Vilches, S.

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

Villiger, M.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Weissman, N.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wieser, W.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 244, 113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Xie, H.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xie, T.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeo, B. Y.

Zappe, H.

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Circulation (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, N. Weissman, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Electron. Lett. 39, 1535 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photonics J. 5, 3900015 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Vilches, S. Kretschmer, C. Ataman, and H. Zappe, J. Micromech. Microeng. 27, 105015 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 244, 113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. J. Seibel, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, J. L. Crossman-Bosworth, and J. A. Myers, Proc. SPIE 4616, 173 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Pettermann, and R. Huber, Proc. SPIE 10053, 10053 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, Sci. Rep. 6, 28771 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Volume scan of lens tissue imaged with a high-speed volumetric fiber scanning endoscope for multi-megahertz optical coherence tomography.
» Visualization 2       Rendered volume (a) and a cut away view of the volume (b) of a measured fingertip where fine structures like the sweat glands are visible. Imaging was done by a high-speed volumetric fiber scanning endoscope for multi-megahertz optical coherence tomography.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic drawing of the piezo fiber scanning probe (not to scale). (b) Image of the fiber scanning endoscope (FSE).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) All-fiber-based focusing optics, overlaid with simulated beam intensity. (b) Measured beam profile in the focus along the z-axis, (c) measured lateral beam profile (x,y) in the focus, and (d) the measured lateral beam profile across the line in.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Look-up table for assigning the measured A-scans to their correct spatial location. (b) En face image calculated from a maximum intensity projection of an image of a line pattern. (c) En face image of lens tissue sampled at 3.28 MHz A-scan rate. (d) Simulated en face image with numerically reduced A-scan rate of 100 kHz. Blurring can be observed at the outer part of the FOV (arrow).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Volume displayed as MIP, (b) an extracted en face plane, and (c) an extracted B-scan from of a measured fingertip. The papillary strips and underlying structures such as the sweat glands (arrow) are visible. The (*) indicates the surface of the end window of the probe.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ x min λ 8    NA = 3.7    μm .
f AScan = d · π · f Δ x min = 0.82    MHz .