Abstract

Atomic bandpass filters are widely used in a variety of applications, owing to their high peak transmission and narrow bandwidths. Much of the previous literature has used the Faraday effect to realize these filters, where an axial magnetic field is applied across the atomic medium. Here we show that by using a non-axial magnetic field, the performance of these filters can be improved in comparison to the Faraday geometry. We optimize the performance of these filters using a numerical model and verify their performance by direct quantitative comparison with experimental data. We find excellent agreement between experiment and theory. These optimized filters could find use in many of the areas where Faraday filters are currently used, with little modification to the optical setup, allowing for improved performance with relatively little change.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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A. Cacciani and M. Fofi, Sol. Phys. 59, 179 (1978).
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P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Sci. Rep. 7, 8995 (2017).
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J. Xiong, B. Luo, L. Yin, J. Chen, and H. Guo, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 716 (2018).
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S. L. Portalupi, M. Widmann, C. Nawrath, M. Jetter, P. Michler, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, Nat. Commun. 7, 13632 (2016).
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W. Kiefer, R. Löw, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, Sci. Rep. 4, 6552 (2014).
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Guo, H.

B. Luo, L. Yin, J. Xiong, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Opt. Lett. 43, 2458 (2018).
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J. Xiong, B. Luo, L. Yin, J. Chen, and H. Guo, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 716 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Sci. Rep. 7, 8995 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, B. Luo, J. Xiong, and H. Guo, Opt. Express 24, 6088 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 095111 (2016).
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Hase, T. P. A.

I. G. Hughes and T. P. A. Hase, Measurements and Their Uncertainties: A Practical Guide to Modern Error Analysis (OUP, 2010).

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Hong, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, Z. Liu, and J. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Tao, Y. Hong, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 37, 4059 (2012).
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Horsley, A.

A. Horsley and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 211102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hughes, I. G.

J. Keaveney, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Comput. Phys. Commun. 224, 311 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 095111 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, R. S. Mathew, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 48, 185001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, L. Weller, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Comput. Phys. Commun. 189, 162 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, D. J. Whiting, J. Keaveney, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Opt. Lett. 40, 2000 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Weller, K. S. Kleinbach, M. A. Zentile, S. Knappe, I. G. Hughes, and C. S. Adams, Opt. Lett. 37, 3405 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. E. Sherlock and I. G. Hughes, Am. J. Phys. 77, 111 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. G. Hughes and T. P. A. Hase, Measurements and Their Uncertainties: A Practical Guide to Modern Error Analysis (OUP, 2010).

Jetter, M.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Widmann, C. Nawrath, M. Jetter, P. Michler, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, Nat. Commun. 7, 13632 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiménez-Martínez, R.

Keaveney, J.

J. Keaveney, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Comput. Phys. Commun. 224, 311 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 095111 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, R. S. Mathew, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 48, 185001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, J. Keaveney, L. Weller, D. J. Whiting, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Comput. Phys. Commun. 189, 162 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zentile, D. J. Whiting, J. Keaveney, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, Opt. Lett. 40, 2000 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keaveney, “Collective atom–light interactions in dense atomic vapours,” Springer Theses (Springer International Publishing, 2014).

Kiefer, W.

W. Kiefer, R. Löw, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, Sci. Rep. 4, 6552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

Kleinbach, K. S.

Knappe, S.

Knize, R. J.

Kominis, I. K.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
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Kong, J.

Korevaar, E.

Kornack, T. W.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
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Kremer, R.

LeBlanc, J.

Li, Y.

Ling, L.

Liu, Z.

Q. Sun, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, Z. Liu, and J. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, W. Zhuang, Z. Liu, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 4611 (2011).
[Crossref]

Löw, R.

W. Kiefer, R. Löw, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, Sci. Rep. 4, 6552 (2014).
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Lucivero, V. G.

Luiten, A. N.

G.-W. Truong, J. D. Anstie, E. F. May, T. M. Stace, and A. N. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 86, 030501 (2012).
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Luo, B.

J. Xiong, B. Luo, L. Yin, J. Chen, and H. Guo, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 716 (2018).
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B. Luo, L. Yin, J. Xiong, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Opt. Lett. 43, 2458 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Sci. Rep. 7, 8995 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, B. Luo, J. Xiong, and H. Guo, Opt. Express 24, 6088 (2016).
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X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191121 (2006).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (13)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the magneto-optic filter setup and geometry. The filter is formed by placing an atomic vapor cell in an applied magnetic field ( B ) formed from two top-hat shaped permanent magnets (PM). The field strength is determined by the separation of the two magnets and is adjustable up to 0.5 T. The magnetic field is oriented in the x z -plane at an angle θ B to the z -axis and sets the quantization axis for the atoms. The light propagates along the z -axis. An input high-extinction Glan–Taylor polarizer (GT1) is set at an angle θ E with respect to the x -axis. The output polarizer is crossed at 90 deg to the input polarizer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated optimized filter profiles for the D2 lines of Na, K, Rb, and Cs. The calculation parameters are shown in Table 1. Zero of the detuning axis is the weighted line-center of the respective D2 lines [15,46]. Note that the K and Rb filters are naturally abundant isotopic mixtures. The inset for the Cs filter shows the extremely narrow single peak at the line-center.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental data with theoretical model for the Rb D2 line (natural abundance ratio). The experimental optical path length is 5 mm. The purple points are experimental data, and the blue solid line is the fit to the model with fitted parameters T = 124.0 ° C , | B | = 232    G , θ B = 81.8 ° , and θ E = 2.9 ° . The experimentally determined ENBW, FOM, and FWHM are ( 0.68 ± 0.01 )    GHz , ( 1.04 ± 0.01 )    GHz 1 , and ( 294 ± 1 )    MHz , respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimized Filter Parameters for 5 mm Vapor Cell Thickness Across the Commonly Used Alkali-Metal Atoms