Abstract

Aberration-corrected imaging of human photoreceptor cells, whether hardware or software based, presently requires a complex and expensive setup. Here we use a simple and inexpensive off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach to acquire volumetric data of an in vivo human retina. Full volumetric data are recorded in 1.3 s. After computationally correcting for aberrations, single photoreceptor cells were visualized. In addition, the numerical correction of ametropia is demonstrated. Our implementation of full-field optical coherence tomography combines a low technical complexity with the possibility for computational image correction.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

2016 (6)

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N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. I. Yellott, Vis. Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).
[Crossref]

Adie, S. G.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Artal, P.

Augustin, M.

Baumann, B.

Birngruber, R.

Boccara, A. C.

Bonora, S.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

P. Pande, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 41, 3324 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

Fechtig, D.

Fercher, A. F.

Fernández, E. J.

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, M.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129 (1998).

Franke, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 41, 4987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ginner, L.

Gotzinger, E.

Götzinger, E.

Hafner, J.

Hain, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heisler, M.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hermann, B.

Hestenes, M. R.

M. R. Hestenes and E. Stiefel, Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems (NBS, 1952), Vol. 49.

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 41, 4987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 41, 4987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jian, Y.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jonnal, R. S.

Ju, M. J.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koch, P.

Kumar, A.

Kurokawa, K.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4554 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-Z.

P. Pande, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 41, 3324 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4554 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. T.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4554 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miller, J. J.

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Münst, M.

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).
[Crossref]

Pande, P.

Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

Prager, S.

Pricoupenko, N.

Prieto, P. M.

Reinholz, F.

Salas, M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sattmann, H.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schmoll, T.

Scott Carney, P.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shemonski, N. D.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

South, F. A.

P. Pande, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 41, 3324 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spahr, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 41, 4987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stiefel, E.

M. R. Hestenes and E. Stiefel, Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems (NBS, 1952), Vol. 49.

Sudkamp, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Sudkamp, P. Koch, H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, G. Franke, M. Münst, F. Reinholz, R. Birngruber, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 41, 4987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Unterhuber, A.

Wade, A. R.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129 (1998).

Williams, D. R.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

Winter, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wurster, L. M.

Xiao, P.

Yellott, J. I.

J. I. Yellott, Vis. Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4554 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Comput. J. (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comput. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129 (1998).

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Photonics 9, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jian, S. Lee, M. J. Ju, M. Heisler, W. Ding, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Bonora, and M. V. Sarunic, Sci. Rep. 6, 27620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vis. Res. (2)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, Vis. Res. 36, 1067 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. I. Yellott, Vis. Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. R. Hestenes and E. Stiefel, Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems (NBS, 1952), Vol. 49.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Setup of the off-axis full-field time-domain OCT (OA-FF-TD-OCT). SLD, free-space SLD; C 1 , collimation optics; BS 1 , BS 2 , and BS 3 , beam splitters; L 1 , achromatic lens; and L eye , refractive elements of the eye. The off-axis angle is introduced by the diffraction grating.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. 2D-Fourier-transformed image of one layer of a human retina imaged in vivo with OA-FF-TD-OCT (a) before and (b) after depth high-pass filtering of the series of raw images. The box marks the frequencies used for reconstruction.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. B-scan reconstructed from a volume measured in an area close to the optic nerve head of a 5    dpt myopic eye (a) before and (b) after numerical defocus correction. Five adjacent B-scans were averaged; the scale bars correspond to 100 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Aberration-corrected en-face image of the photoreceptor layer composed of two volumes. (b) Fundus image; the white box shows the measured area. (c)–(f) Close-ups of the regions marked in (a) before aberration correction and (g)–(j) after aberration correction. (k)–(m) Fourier transform of the areas shown in (g)–(i); (n)–(o) Zernike coefficients used for aberration correction of the images (i) and (j), respectively. For (f) and (j), three adjacent layers were averaged. All other images are unaveraged. The scale bar is 100 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k t = 2 π g ,
U img = U obj * P .
u ˜ img = u ˜ obj · p ˜ .
u ˜ obj = u ˜ img · p ˜ * .