Abstract

A novel in-fiber whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microsphere resonator-based integrated device is reported. It is fabricated by placing a silica microsphere into an embedded dual-core hollow fiber (EDCHF). Using a fiber tapering method, a silica microsphere can be placed and fixed in the transition section of the hollow core of the EDCHF. The transmitted light from the tapered-input single-mode fiber is coupled into the embedded silica microsphere via the two suspended fiber cores, and hence effectively excites the WGMs. A Q-factor of 5.54×103 is achieved over the wavelength range of 1100–1300 nm. The polarization and temperature dependence of the in-fiber WGM microsphere resonator device is also investigated experimentally. This integrated photonics device provides greatly improved mechanical stability, compared with the traditional tapered fiber-coupled WGM microresonator devices. Additional advantages include ease of fabrication, compact structure, and low cost. This novel in-fiber WGM resonator integrated device is ideally positioned to access a wide range of potential applications in optical sensing and microcavity lasing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
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X. Zhang, D. Huang, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 13557 (2007).
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[Crossref]

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T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bai, H.

Barwicz, T.

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bo, L.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Chormaic, S. N.

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. N. Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dhasmana, N.

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. N. Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fraser, M.

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Han, Z. F.

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Hewak, D.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jacques, F.

Ji, Z.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimble, H. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Kosma, K.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laine, J. P.

Lee, T.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Maleki, L.

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pissadakis, S.

Popovíc, M. A.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

Rakich, P. T.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schuster, K.

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

Socci, L.

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, F. W.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, T.

Ward, J. M.

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. N. Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

Xiong, J. J.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xue, C. Y.

Yan, M.

Yan, S. B.

Yan, Y. Z.

Yang, Y.

Yao, X. S.

Zhang, W. D.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y. G.

Zito, G.

Zou, C. L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. (1)

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. N. Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the microsphere-embedded SMF–EDCHF–SMF structure. The inset illustrates the propagation of light.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Electric field distribution of the microsphere in (a)  x z plane and (b)  x y plane.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Microscope image of the cross section of the EDCHF, (b) schematic diagram of the EDCHF structure, and (c) microscope image of the silica microsphere samples used in the experiments.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Microscope images of (a) a microsphere being loaded by an optical half taper, (b) a microsphere physically encapsulated inside the EDCHF, and (c) the transmission spectrum of the microsphere–EDCHF structure; the inset is the zoom-in resonant spectrum, which results in the estimated calculated highest Q -factor of 5.54 × 10 3 .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the polarization and temperature characteristics.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Polarization characteristics of the resonance of the WGMs, (b) spectra of warming process, (c) spectra of cooling process, and (d) linear fit of wavelength shifts.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ E 2 E 2 ] = [ t 1 i k 1 i k 1 t 1 ] [ E 1 E 1 ] , [ E 4 E 4 ] = [ t 2 i k 2 i k 2 t 2 ] [ E 3 E 3 ] ,
E 2 E 1 = t 1 t 2 α 2 e i θ 1 t 1 t 2 α 2 e i θ .
P T = | E 2 E 1 | 2 = ( t 1 t 2 α 2 1 t 1 t 2 α 2 ) 2 ,
Δ λ λ = Δ n eff n eff + Δ R R ,

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