Abstract

We propose an elastomer thin-film pressure sensor enabled by pressure-sensitive optical signals through vertical photonic tunnel-junction couplers. We provide the operation principle, design, fabrication, and test results from a 50 μm thick polydimethylsiloxane sheet accommodating embedded vertical photonic tunnel-junction couplers. The result with a 5 mm long device shows a differential optical power change that is 140% of the incident power under moderate external pressure of 40  kPa, thereby clearly demonstrating a robust pressure-sensing capability realized in a highly flexible, lightweight, transferrable, optically transparent, and bio-compatible thin-film material. Therefore, the proposed approach potentially enables versatile pressure and touch sensors for many applications in practice.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. Maxwell, Inf. Disp. 12, 26 (2007).
  5. H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Y. Han, Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (2005), Vol. 115.
  7. M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
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  14. Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
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  15. M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. W.-P. Huang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 963 (1994).
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  18. We measured optical and mechanical properties of ZPU430 polymer and our synthesized PDMS films with a customized attenuated-total-reflection system and RSA-G2 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (TA instrument), respectively. In our customized attenuated-total-reflection system, accuracy in critical-angle detection is ∼2×10−4 degrees, and this value yields a refractive-index error ∼3×10−5  RIU in our specific configurations. Measured optical and mechanical parameters for the PDMS film are a refractive-index nd=1.41 at 1, 310 nm, and Young’s modulus E=0.8  MPa. The ZPU430 polymer film has a refractive-index nc=1.43 at 1, 310 nm, and Young’s modulus E′=0.65  GPa.
  19. J. M. Liu and L. Gomelsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1574 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
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  21. Nusil Product Profile, LS-6941, available at http://www.silicone-polymers.co.uk/pdfMaster/LS-6941P.pdf .
  22. J. E. Mark, ed., Ploymer Data Handbook, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, 2009), p. 417.

2017 (1)

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

I. Maxwell, Inf. Disp. 12, 26 (2007).

2005 (1)

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

Bao, Z.

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barman, S.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blanchetière, C.

X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. V. H.-H.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clemens, F.

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dellon, A.

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dellon, E.

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

Di, C.

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

El-Sherif, M. A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gomelsky, L.

Guo, Z.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

J. Y. Han, Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (2005), Vol. 115.

Hanson, S. G.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.-P.

Iba, S.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iversen, T.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, M. L.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. E.

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keller, K.

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

Korsgaard, J.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kyung, J.-U.

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kyung, K.-U.

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. J.

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. K.

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. M.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luong, M. P.

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lyu, H. K.

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

MacDiarmid, A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mannsfeld, S. C. B.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

I. Maxwell, Inf. Disp. 12, 26 (2007).

Mihailov, S. J.

X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moratz, V.

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mosgaard, M.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Muir, B. V. O.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murase, Y.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nam, S.

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, Y.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, B. J.

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, S. K.

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, H. C.

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramuz, M.

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reese, C.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rothmaier, M.

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sekitani, T.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. N.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Someya, T.

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stoltenberg, R. M.

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

Tee, B. C.-K.

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tok, J. B.-H.

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J. M.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yun, S.

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, S. Yun, K.-U. Kyung, and K. Sun, Opt. Express 20, 14486 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zang, Y.

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Ramuz, B. C.-K. Tee, J. B.-H. Tok, and Z. Bao, Adv. Mater. 24, 3223 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yun, S. Park, B. Park, Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Nam, and K.-U. Kyung, Adv. Mater. 26, 4474 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. C. Pedersen, M. L. Jakobsen, S. G. Hanson, M. Mosgaard, T. Iversen, and J. Korsgaard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 564 (2000).
[Crossref]

Inf. Disp. (1)

I. Maxwell, Inf. Disp. 12, 26 (2007).

Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. (1)

H. Cho, H. Lee, Y. Kim, and J. Kim, Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 15, 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

G. J. Lee, S. K. Lee, H. K. Lyu, and J. E. Jang, J. Disp. Technol. 11, 759 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hand Surg. (1)

E. Dellon, K. Keller, V. Moratz, and A. Dellon, J. Hand Surg. 20, 44 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. (1)

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mater. Horiz. (1)

Y. Zang, F. Zhang, C. Di, and D. Zhu, Mater. Horiz. 2, 140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. C. B. Mannsfeld, B. C.-K. Tee, R. M. Stoltenberg, C. V. H.-H. Chen, S. Barman, B. V. O. Muir, A. N. Sokolov, C. Reese, and Z. Bao, Nat. Mater. 9, 859 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

X. Dai, S. J. Mihailov, and C. Blanchetière, Opt. Eng. 49, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

T. Someya, Y. Kato, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Noguchi, and Y. Murase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12321 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

B. J. Park, S. Park, S. Yun, S. Nam, and J.-U. Kyung, Sens. Actuators, A 233, 47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, Sensors 8, 4318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

We measured optical and mechanical properties of ZPU430 polymer and our synthesized PDMS films with a customized attenuated-total-reflection system and RSA-G2 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (TA instrument), respectively. In our customized attenuated-total-reflection system, accuracy in critical-angle detection is ∼2×10−4 degrees, and this value yields a refractive-index error ∼3×10−5  RIU in our specific configurations. Measured optical and mechanical parameters for the PDMS film are a refractive-index nd=1.41 at 1, 310 nm, and Young’s modulus E=0.8  MPa. The ZPU430 polymer film has a refractive-index nc=1.43 at 1, 310 nm, and Young’s modulus E′=0.65  GPa.

J. Y. Han, Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (2005), Vol. 115.

Nusil Product Profile, LS-6941, available at http://www.silicone-polymers.co.uk/pdfMaster/LS-6941P.pdf .

J. E. Mark, ed., Ploymer Data Handbook, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, 2009), p. 417.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed elastomer thin-film pressure sensor. (a) Overview of a device concept. (b) Close-up illustration of a vertical photonic tunnel-junction in a sensing region. Optical signal flow through the element is indicated with guided-mode wave functions ψ1 at Ch1 and ψ2 at Ch2. Cross-sectional diagrams on the bottom show two waveguide channels at the input, coupling region, and output planes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Dependence of the Qopt signal on the refractive-index change in PDMS. (b) Dependence of Qopt signal on length compression in the inter-channel spacing. Here, the compressive strain ϵc is defined as ϵc=(g0g)/g0 with g and g0 denoting compressed and uncompressed tunnel-barrier widths, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Device fabrication. (a) Fabrication process flow consisting of repeated polymer coating and UV photolithography steps. (b) Optical micrograph of a fabricated photonic tunnel-junction cell array. Nine consecutive images are used to mosaic this image.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Experimental setup used for measuring optimal optical signal Qopt under a controlled pressure applied with a linear actuator. (b) Acquired infrared micrographs of output optical modes and corresponding Qopt values under gradually increasing compressive strain (ϵc). The inferred pressure on the additional vertical axis on the right is calculated based on a measured Young’s modulus (0.8 MPa) of a sacrificial PDMS sheet using an RSA-G2 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (TA instrument).

Equations (4)

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I1=I0cos2(κL)andI2=I0sin2(κL),
κk0Γ(ndΔncd)1/2exp(g/δ).
Sp=2κLsin(2κL)(CgE1g+CnR),
R=(2E)1nd3(12μ)(2Pxy+Pyy),