Abstract

Two ytterbium-doped fiber lasers exhibiting quantum defects of less than 1% are demonstrated, in which pumping at wavelengths of 976.6 and 981.0 nm yielded lasing at wavelengths of 985.7 and 989.8 nm, respectively. The multicomponent fluorosilicate active optical fiber, fabricated using the molten core method, has spectral characteristics similar to those of fluoride glasses, namely short average emission wavelength and long upper state lifetime. A best-case slope efficiency of 62.1% was obtained, matching the theoretical model very well. With further fiber and laser optimization, slope efficiencies approaching the quantum limit should ultimately be possible. A reduction in the quantum defect may offer significant mitigation of issues associated with fiber heating. As such, this work can serve as a possible direction for future scaling of high-power fiber laser systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

T. Yao, J. Ji, and J. Nilsson, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 219 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Nat. Photonics 7, 861 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Opt. Express 21, 2642 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

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Ahmadi, P.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

M. Cavillon, C. J. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, A. F. J. Runge, A. C. Peacock, P. D. Dragic, and J. Ballato, J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 284 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, N. Yu, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. Express 8, 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato and E. Snitzer, Appl. Opt. 34, 6848 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

Barnard, C.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Cain-Skaff, M.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Cavillon, M.

M. Cavillon, C. J. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, A. F. J. Runge, A. C. Peacock, P. D. Dragic, and J. Ballato, J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 284 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, N. Yu, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. Express 8, 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

Chang, Y. M.

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Chatigny, S.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Christensen, S.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, J.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chu, Q.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Codemard, C.

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Codemard, C. A.

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, J. W.

Ding, J.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Dou, J.

Dragic, P.

M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, N. Yu, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. Express 8, 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

Dragic, P. D.

M. Cavillon, C. J. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, A. F. J. Runge, A. C. Peacock, P. D. Dragic, and J. Ballato, J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 284 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

Eden, J. G.

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

Edgecumbe, J.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Farley, K.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

Guintrand, C.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, T.

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

Hawkins, T. W.

Heebner, J. E.

Holten, R.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Nat. Photonics 7, 861 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, J.

T. Yao, J. Ji, and J. Nilsson, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 429 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Jing, F.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kavehrad, M.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kawato, S.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Kobayashi, T.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Kong, F.

Krishnaiah, K. V.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kucera, C.

M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, N. Yu, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. Express 8, 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

Kucera, C. J.

Lapointe, M.-A.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Ledemi, Y.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Nat. Photonics 7, 861 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Ma, J.

Maran, J.-N.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, S.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Messaddeq, Y.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Messerly, M. J.

Mironov, A.

P. D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, A. Mironov, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. G. Eden, and J. Ballato, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JW4A.81.

Myslinski, P.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, Y.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Nemova, G.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

T. Yao, J. Ji, and J. Nilsson, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 429 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Pan, S.

Pax, P. H.

Peacock, A. C.

Piché, M.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Runge, A. F. J.

Sahu, J.

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Shirakawa, A.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Shori, R. K.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Snitzer, E.

Soares de Lima Filho, E.

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sridharran, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Tam, H.

Tang, C.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Tankala, K.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Nat. Photonics 7, 861 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uno, K.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

Wang, B.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Wen, Y.

Yao, T.

T. Yao, J. Ji, and J. Nilsson, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 429 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

Yu, N.

M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. W. Hawkins, N. Yu, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. Express 8, 744 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, M. Cavillon, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and P. Dragic, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper STu3K.6.

Yuan, Q.

Zervas, M. N.

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, P.

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.

Zhu, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 219 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Nat. Photonics 7, 861 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

Y. Huang, J. Edgecumbe, J. Ding, R. Holten, P. Ahmadi, C.-H. Wang, C. Guintrand, K. Farley, S. Christensen, and K. Tankala, Proc. SPIE 8961, 89612K (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Chu, P. Zhao, C. Li, B. Wang, H. Lin, C. Guo, Y. Liu, F. Jing, and C. Tang, Proc. SPIE 10710, 107103S (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. V. Krishnaiah, E. Soares de Lima Filho, Y. Ledemi, G. Nemova, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, Sci. Rep. 6, 21905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

J. Nilsson, T. Yao, Y. M. Chang, J. Sahu, J. Ji, and C. Codemard, Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ATu1A.1.

S. Matsubara, K. Uno, Y. Nakajima, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, and A. Shirakawa, Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Compositional and refractive index profiles and (b) SEM image of the fiber. Not shown for reasons of clarity in (a) is the oxygen concentration, %O. However, %O (at. %) = 100 − [%F + %Sr + %Al + %Si + %Yb].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized (a) emission cross section ( σ e ) and (b) absorption cross section ( σ a ) spectra for Yb-doped commercial aluminosilicate fiber and the fluorosilicate fiber of this study. Normalized data are provided in order to show the effect of F on the spectroscopic properties. The absolute value of absorption (emission) cross section at the peak for aluminosilicate fiber and fluorosilicate fiber is 2.53 × 10 24    m 2 and 1.48 × 10 24    m 2 , respectively [14].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup (an “ × ” indicates a fusion splice).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Output spectra with 976.6 nm pump and Yb-doped fiber length of (a) 19.1 cm, 17.1 cm and (b) 15.4 cm, 11.4 cm showing the evolution of ASE with active fiber length. These plots were measured with a pump power of 624 mW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Slope efficiency with different Yb-doped fiber lengths for the two low-QD cases (the curves are provided only as visual aids to the reader) and (b) theoretical and experimental output power versus launched pump power at near the optimal fiber length (11.4 cm for 976.6 nm pumping and 15.6 cm for 981 nm pumping).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Difference between pump leakage and lasing powers at different Yb-doped fiber lengths for the two low-QD cases. These were obtained using 265 mW of pump power. The lines are simple fits to the data meant as visual aids to the reader.

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