Abstract

In the linear response theory, it is well known that the response of a quantum system to an external perturbation described by the susceptibility is formulated in the Schrödinger picture. The theory might apply to open quantum systems (or Floquet systems); however, it has ignored the non-Markovian effect in almost all works so far. In this Letter, we propose a new method to address those issues by introducing Heisenberg operators to derive an exact susceptibility for the non-Markovian Floquet periodic driving system. The susceptibility includes all the influences of the environment on the Floquet system. We will show that the susceptibility connects closely to the structure of the Floquet energy spectrum of the whole system (system plus environment). Moreover, we can read out Floquet bound states in the first Brillouin zone of the whole system from the susceptibility. The presented results may find applications in quantum engineering with open systems following modulated periodic evolution in quantum optics.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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