Abstract

Delay-and-sum beamforming (DSB) of photoacoustic data does not incorporate a priori spatial sparsity of the imaging target. By incorporating this information into beamforming for limited-view photoacoustic computed tomography, we experimentally obtained enhanced resolution images of wires at a depth of 8.5 mm in a tissue mimicking scattering medium. Using a 21 MHz transducer, we improved the resolution from the 200 to 250 μm achieved by DSB to 75 μm. The sparsity-based technique also generated a cleaner image with a background signal level of roughly 50  dB, much lower than the roughly 18  dB background signal level of DSB.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 061007 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Z. Wu, M. Sun, Q. Wang, T. Liu, N. Feng, J. Liu, and Y. Shen, Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 121701 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Xenaki, P. Gerstoft, and K. Mosegaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 260 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Asif and J. Romberg, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 62, 4209 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Liang, H. F. Zhang, and L. Ying, Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. 2, 394 (2009).

J. Provost and F. Lesage, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 585 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Malioutov, M. Cetin, and A. S. Willsky, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 3010 (2005).
[Crossref]

Asif, M. S.

M. S. Asif and J. Romberg, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 62, 4209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berer, T.

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bossy, E.

Burgholzer, P.

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cetin, M.

D. Malioutov, M. Cetin, and A. S. Willsky, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 3010 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chaigne, T.

Conkey, D. B.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, G.

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dove, J. D.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eldar, Y. C.

Feng, N.

Gerstoft, P.

A. Xenaki, P. Gerstoft, and K. Mosegaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haltmeier, M.

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hojman, E.

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ju, H.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

Krahmer, F.

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laine, A. F.

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lesage, F.

J. Provost and F. Lesage, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 585 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

D. Liang, H. F. Zhang, and L. Ying, Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. 2, 394 (2009).

J. Meng, D. Liang, and L. Song, in IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 717–720.

Liu, J.

Liu, T.

Malioutov, D.

D. Malioutov, M. Cetin, and A. S. Willsky, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 3010 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meng, J.

J. Meng, D. Liang, and L. Song, in IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 717–720.

Mosegaard, K.

A. Xenaki, P. Gerstoft, and K. Mosegaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murray, T. W.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pramanik, M.

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Provost, J.

J. Provost and F. Lesage, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 585 (2009).
[Crossref]

Robert, J.-l.

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Romberg, J.

M. S. Asif and J. Romberg, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 62, 4209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sandbichler, M.

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schiffner, M. F.

M. F. Schiffner and G. Schmitz, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 688–691.

Schmitz, G.

M. F. Schiffner and G. Schmitz, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 688–691.

Shen, Y.

Solomon, O.

Song, L.

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Meng, D. Liang, and L. Song, in IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 717–720.

Sun, M.

Upputuri, P. K.

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 061007 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Wen, Z.-B.

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Willsky, A. S.

D. Malioutov, M. Cetin, and A. S. Willsky, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 3010 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, M. Sun, Q. Wang, T. Liu, N. Feng, J. Liu, and Y. Shen, Chin. Opt. Lett. 12, 121701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xenaki, A.

A. Xenaki, P. Gerstoft, and K. Mosegaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 061007 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ying, L.

D. Liang, H. F. Zhang, and L. Ying, Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. 2, 394 (2009).

Zhang, B.

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. F.

D. Liang, H. F. Zhang, and L. Ying, Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. 2, 394 (2009).

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 061007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. Provost and F. Lesage, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 585 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (2)

D. Malioutov, M. Cetin, and A. S. Willsky, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 3010 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. S. Asif and J. Romberg, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 62, 4209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. (1)

D. Liang, H. F. Zhang, and L. Ying, Int. J. Funct. Inf. Pers. Med. 2, 394 (2009).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

A. Xenaki, P. Gerstoft, and K. Mosegaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 260 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. David, J.-l. Robert, B. Zhang, and A. F. Laine, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 061007 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. K. Upputuri, Z.-B. Wen, Z. Wu, and M. Pramanik, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 116003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, C. Li, L. Song, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, Nat. Commun. 6, 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 014302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (1)

M. Sandbichler, F. Krahmer, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, and M. Haltmeier, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 75, 2475 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. F. Schiffner and G. Schmitz, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 688–691.

J. Meng, D. Liang, and L. Song, in IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 717–720.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Received pressure-over-time channel data are modeled as the linear superpositions of the responses due to individual point targets. Estimating f produces an image and can be done using SBR or DSB.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental apparatus to measure the photoacoustic response of the cross section of two converging wires.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) and (b) are experimental B-scans formed using SBR; (c) is a maximum amplitude projection C-scan formed using SBR.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) and (b) are experimental B-scans formed using SBR; (c) is a maximum amplitude projection C-scan formed using SBR. Gaussian smoothing followed by 10-times upsampling was applied to generate these images from the raw images in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) and (b) are experimental B-scans formed using DSB; (c) is a maximum amplitude projection C-scan formed using DSB.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison between the smoothed SBR image and the point locations expected (vertical lines) using a linear fit of wire trajectories generated from the DSB image. The linear fit vertical lines are at separations of 289, 209, 144, and 75 μm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison between the DSB image to the point locations expected (vertical lines) using a linear fit of wire trajectories generated from the DSB image. The linear fit vertical lines are at separations of 305, 241, and 201 μm.

Equations (2)

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g = H f + n .
f ^ = arg min f { τ f 1 + 1 2 g H f 2 2 } , with each    f i > 0 .

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