Abstract

A fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide (BGW) fabricated in the surface of single-mode fiber by direct femtosecond laser inscription is demonstrated and successfully applied for refractive index (RI) measurements. Prior to laser inscription of the fiber surface BGW, an X-coupler is first inscribed across the fiber core to couple light from the core to the fiber surface. The light transmitted in the fiber surface BGW efficiently interacts with the surrounding medium due to a strong evanescent field, and obtains an acceptable RI sensitivity approaching 16  nm/RIU. The novel design efficiently couples the light guided in the core with the surrounding medium using a non-destructive, single-step micromachining process, and is expected to have potential applications in fiber biochemical sensing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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