Abstract

We present high-resolution imaging fibers made from low-cost commercially available fiber preforms manufactured for the telecommunications industry. Our fabrication method involves multi-stacking arrays of different sized cores in order to suppress core-to-core crosstalk whilst building up a large array of cores. One of the fibers, based on a square array of cores, has comparable imaging performance to commercial imaging fibers but without the need for exceptionally high refractive index contrasts, and will enable the development of economically viable single-use disposable imaging fibers.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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  1. B. I. Hirschowitz, Lancet 277, 1074 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), p. 387.
  3. Schott North America, An Introduction to Fiber Optic Imaging (Schott, 2007).
  4. SCHOTT Lighting and Imaging, http://www.us.schott.com/lightingimaging/english/medical/medical-products/transmitting-images_leached-image-bundle.html .
  5. Fujikura Europe Ltd., http://www.fujikura.co.uk/products/medical-industrial-optical-fibre/image-fibre/ .
  6. X. Chen, K. L. Reichenbach, and C. Xu, Opt. Express 16, 21598 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, Nature 452, 580 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
    [Crossref]
  12. A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. A. Wood, K. Harrington, J. M. Stone, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 25, 1985 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1987), p. 505.
  17. https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00342 .

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

1961 (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, Lancet 277, 1074 (1961).
[Crossref]

Akram, A. R.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aslam, B. T.

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Aslam, T.

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avlonitis, N.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bradley, M.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Bunschoten, A.

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chankeshwara, S. V.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Choudhary, T. R.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalgarno, P. A.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Debunne, M.

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Dhaliwal, K.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorward, D. A.

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Girkin, J. M.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harrington, K.

Haslett, C.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1987), p. 505.

Hirani, N.

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirschowitz, B. I.

B. I. Hirschowitz, Lancet 277, 1074 (1961).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Kokubun, Y.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krstajic, N.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lilienkampf, A.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), p. 387.

Lucas, C. D.

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

McDonald, N.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Megia-Fernandez, A.

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Michels, C.

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miele, A.

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moore, A.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pedretti, E.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Perez-Lopez, A. M.

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, Nature 452, 580 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reichenbach, K. L.

Rossi, A. G.

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sathekge, M.

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scholefield, E.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), p. 387.

Stone, J. M.

Tanner, M. G.

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Termaat, M. F.

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Leeuwen, F. W. B.

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, Nature 452, 580 (2008).
[Crossref]

Welling, M. M.

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wood, H. A.

Xu, C.

Bioconjugate Chem. (1)

A. Bunschoten, M. M. Welling, M. F. Termaat, M. Sathekge, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, Bioconjugate Chem. 24, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Sci. (2)

A. R. Akram, N. Avlonitis, A. Lilienkampf, A. M. Perez-Lopez, N. McDonald, S. V. Chankeshwara, E. Scholefield, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 6971 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Aslam, A. Miele, S. V. Chankeshwara, A. Megia-Fernandez, C. Michels, A. R. Akram, N. McDonald, N. Hirani, C. Haslett, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, Chem. Sci. 6, 4946 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, IEICE Electron. Express 6, 98 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. Krstajić, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 046009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lancet (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, Lancet 277, 1074 (1961).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, Nature 452, 580 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Biomol. Chem. (1)

N. Avlonitis, M. Debunne, B. T. Aslam, N. McDonald, C. Haslett, K. Dhaliwal, and M. Bradley, Org. Biomol. Chem. 11, 4414 (2013.)
[Crossref]

Pharmacol. Ther. (1)

D. A. Dorward, C. D. Lucas, A. G. Rossi, C. Haslett, and K. Dhaliwal, Pharmacol. Ther. 135, 182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), p. 387.

Schott North America, An Introduction to Fiber Optic Imaging (Schott, 2007).

SCHOTT Lighting and Imaging, http://www.us.schott.com/lightingimaging/english/medical/medical-products/transmitting-images_leached-image-bundle.html .

Fujikura Europe Ltd., http://www.fujikura.co.uk/products/medical-industrial-optical-fibre/image-fibre/ .

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1987), p. 505.

https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00342 .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fabrication stages of our hexagonal array imaging fiber. The diagram in (a) shows the layout of our initial stack of 331 rods. Germanium-doped regions are indicated in gray and black (largest cores, light gray; medium cores, dark gray; smallest cores, black) and pure silica regions are white. Note how no two neighboring cores are the same size. The diagram in (b) shows the layout of our second-stage stack where each hexagon represents the initial stack of 331 cores. An SEM image of the final fiber is shown in (c). Doped regions appear lighter in the SEM. The insert in (c) shows a magnified section of the core pattern.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication stages of our square array imaging fiber. A representation of our initial stack is shown in (a), where gray indicates germanium-doped core regions and white indicates the pure silica cladding regions. The second stacking stage of our process is shown in (b). An SEM image of the fiber can be seen in (c), where doped cores appear lighter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. USAF 1951 test target fluorescent images taken through our two fibers and a commercial fiber from Fujikura Ltd. (FGIH-30-650s). (a) Hexagonal array 520–600 nm, (b) hexagonal array 650–750 nm, (c) square array 520–600 nm, (d) square array 650–750 nm, (e) FGIH-30-650s 520–600 nm, (f) FGIH-30-650s 650–750 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fringe visibility measurements varying with wavelength for our hexagonal array fiber (red triangles), square array fiber (blue circles), and a commercial imaging fiber (Fujikura Ltd., black crosses). The visibility is measured after transmission through approximately 90 cm of fiber in each case. Error bars represent the standard deviation of a series of data points taken at a single wavelength, adjusting and then realigning the system between each measurement.

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