Abstract

We show that nano-optical antennas are capable of controlling the luminescence induced by the absorption of x rays into matter. The x-ray-excited luminescence from a tiny scintillation cluster coupled to a horn nano-optical antenna is highly directed and determined by the antenna’s geometrical parameters. Directionality is sufficiently high to efficiently outcouple the x-ray-excited luminescence to a narrow single-mode optical fiber, thus enabling ultracompact fiber-integrated x-ray sensors. Our nano-optically driven approach offers the possibility of x-ray profiling and dosimetry in ultra-confined environments, opening up new avenues in the fields of x-ray imaging, as well as medical and industrial endoscopy. With this study, to the best of our knowledge, nano-optical antennas make a first key contribution to the development of x-ray sensing protocols and architectures.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
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2014 (1)

2013 (3)

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, G. Burr, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 21, 1762 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, ACS Nano 4, 3390 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
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2006 (2)

A. Beddar, Radiat. Meas. 41, S124 (2006).
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M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R37 (2006).
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2005 (1)

J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

C. W. Van Eijk, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R85 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Letourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, Med. Phys. 26, 2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Beddar, T. Mackie, and F. Attix, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1883 (1992).
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1962 (1)

C. Moncuit and H. Poulet, Journal de Physique et le Radium 23, 353 (1962).
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Agio, M.

F. Kaminski, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 4, 635 (2007).
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Aigouy, L.

Anderson, E. H.

Annenkov, A.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Archambault, L.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arkadiev, V.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
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Attix, F.

A. Beddar, T. Mackie, and F. Attix, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1883 (1992).
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Aumporn, O.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
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Bachelot, R.

Baida, F.

Balanis, C.

C. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1997).

Beaulieu, L.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
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Beddar, A.

A. Beddar, Radiat. Meas. 41, S124 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Beddar, T. Mackie, and F. Attix, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1883 (1992).
[Crossref]

Beddar, A. S.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
[Crossref]

Belacel, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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Belley, M. D.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bigourdan, F.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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Bilotti, F.

Bjeoumikhov, A.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
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Bonod, N.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, ACS Nano 4, 3390 (2010).
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Bourhis, E.

Brownell, G. L.

G. J. Hine and G. L. Brownell, Radiation Dosimetry (Elsevier, 2013).

Burr, G.

Chang, S. X.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

Cho, D. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coolen, L.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Wilde, Y.

Dehlinger, M.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deloeil, D.

Devilez, A.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, ACS Nano 4, 3390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dubertret, B.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ecoffet, C.

Eisler, H.-J.

J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Farahani, J.

J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fauquet, C.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, P.

Gektin, A.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Ger, R.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giannini, V.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. Sanchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, Nano Lett. 7, 2871 (2007).
[Crossref]

Giérak, J.

Gingras, L.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gong, H.

Gong, Q.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Greffet, J.-J.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grosjean, T.

Habert, B.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hadsell, M.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, K.-T.

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

Hine, G. J.

G. J. Hine and G. L. Brownell, Radiation Dosimetry (Elsevier, 2013).

Hou, L.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hugonin, J.-P.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jandard, F.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jang, K. W.

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Javaux, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, F.

F. Kaminski, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 4, 635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kim, S.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korzhik, M.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, F.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lafosse, X.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Langloss, B. W.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lavandier, S.

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lecoq, P.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Lee, B.

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Letourneau, D.

D. Letourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, Med. Phys. 26, 2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Li, W.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lougnot, D.-J.

Lu, G.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mackie, T.

A. Beddar, T. Mackie, and F. Attix, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1883 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maitre, A.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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Massaro, A.

Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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C. Moncuit and H. Poulet, Journal de Physique et le Radium 23, 353 (1962).
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J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
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Moon, J. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
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M. Moreau-Colin, in Structure and Bonding (Springer, 1972), pp. 167–190.

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O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. Sanchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, Nano Lett. 7, 2871 (2007).
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M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R37 (2006).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
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L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

Park, B. G.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
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Park, J.-Y.

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
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Pedrini, C.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

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J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
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C. Moncuit and H. Poulet, Journal de Physique et le Radium 23, 353 (1962).
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D. Letourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, Med. Phys. 26, 2555 (1999).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
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O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. Sanchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, Nano Lett. 7, 2871 (2007).
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L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
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D. Letourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, Med. Phys. 26, 2555 (1999).
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O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. Sanchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, Nano Lett. 7, 2871 (2007).
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F. Kaminski, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 4, 635 (2007).
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Schwob, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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Senellart, P.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
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B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
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T. Sohier, “Nouvelle approche de la dosimétrie des rayonnements ionisants par mesure de fluorescence, selon la technique du comptage de photon unique, corrélé en temps, à l’échelle nanoseconde,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Strasbourg, 2011).

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A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, ACS Nano 4, 3390 (2010).
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M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
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M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
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Yamamoto, H.

S. Shionoya, W. M. Yen, and H. Yamamoto, Phosphor Handbook (CRC Press, 1998).

W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, Fundamentals of Phosphors (CRC Press, 2006).

Yang, Y.

Yen, W. M.

S. Shionoya, W. M. Yen, and H. Yamamoto, Phosphor Handbook (CRC Press, 1998).

W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, Fundamentals of Phosphors (CRC Press, 2006).

Yi, J. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoo, W. J.

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshizumi, T. T.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, S.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
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Zhao, D.

Zhou, O.

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, ACS Nano 4, 3390 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, ACS Nano 6, 1438 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (1)

J. Moon, K. W. Jang, W. J. Yoo, K.-T. Han, J.-Y. Park, and B. Lee, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 2627 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2632 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. (1)

F. Kaminski, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 4, 635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Journal de Physique et le Radium (1)

C. Moncuit and H. Poulet, Journal de Physique et le Radium 23, 353 (1962).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R37 (2006).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (3)

M. D. Belley, I. N. Stanton, M. Hadsell, R. Ger, B. W. Langloss, J. Lu, O. Zhou, S. X. Chang, M. J. Therien, and T. T. Yoshizumi, Med. Phys. 42, 1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Letourneau, J. Pouliot, and R. Roy, Med. Phys. 26, 2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, Med. Phys. 34, 1583 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. Sanchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, Nano Lett. 7, 2871 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, Nano Lett. 13, 1516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano. Res. Lett. (1)

M. Dehlinger, C. Fauquet, S. Lavandier, O. Aumporn, F. Jandard, V. Arkadiev, A. Bjeoumikhov, and D. Tonneau, Nano. Res. Lett. 8, 271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

A. Beddar, T. Mackie, and F. Attix, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1883 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. W. Van Eijk, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Farahani, D. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

A. Beddar, Radiat. Meas. 41, S124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 329, 930 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

G. J. Hine and G. L. Brownell, Radiation Dosimetry (Elsevier, 2013).

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

C. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1997).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

T. Sohier, “Nouvelle approche de la dosimétrie des rayonnements ionisants par mesure de fluorescence, selon la technique du comptage de photon unique, corrélé en temps, à l’échelle nanoseconde,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Strasbourg, 2011).

M. Moreau-Colin, in Structure and Bonding (Springer, 1972), pp. 167–190.

W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, Fundamentals of Phosphors (CRC Press, 2006).

S. Shionoya, W. M. Yen, and H. Yamamoto, Phosphor Handbook (CRC Press, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Directivity for an x-oriented emitter coupled to the horn NOA, in the two major planes (xz) (blue curves) and (yz) (red curves). The emitter is embedded in a high-refractive-index medium (host matrix) covering the dielectric tip apex [see schematic diagram (a)]. (b)–(d) Directivity for an emitter positioned at points A–C, respectively [see (a)]. The gain of the horn NOA is given in the inset of (b)–(d) for the three different emitter positions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical microscope image of a fiber-integrated NOA-based x-ray dosimeter. Inset: SEM micrograph of a scintillation cluster at the apex the micro-tip before aluminum coating (scalebar: 4 μm). (b) Scheme of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental plot of an x-ray-focused beam (>8  keV) at focus. (b) Calibration curve of the dosimeter (detected luminescence versus incident x-ray flux). Minimum detectable x-ray power density is estimated to be of the order of 103  photons/s/μm2. (c) Time trace of the luminescence intensity obtained with the same fiber dosimeter positioned within a collimated x-ray beam emanating from a Cu target source of a commercial diffractometer (Bruker). The source is successively switched on and off.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectrum of the detected optical signal when the fiber probe is centered with respect to the focus.

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