Abstract

We demonstrate a novel tuning concept for pulsed fiber-integrated lasers with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as a discrete and tailored spectral filter, as well as a modified laser design. Based on a theta cavity layout, the structural delay lines originating from the FBG array are balanced, enabling a constant repetition rate and stable pulse properties over the full tuning range. The emission wavelength is electrically tuned with respect to the filter properties based on an adapted temporal gating scheme using an acousto-optic modulator. This concept has been investigated with an Yb-doped fiber laser, demonstrating excellent emission properties with high signal contrast (>35  dB) and narrow linewidth (<150  pm) over a tuning range of 25 nm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2016).
  2. J. Buus and E. J. Murphy, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Vol. 1: Basic Principles, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008).
  4. B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Gottschall, T. Meyer, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 23, 23968 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2010).
  9. A. Villeneuve and N. Godbout, “Tunable mode-locked laser,” U.S. patentWO2009018664 A3 (March26, 2009).
  10. S. Li and K. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 799 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Burgoyne and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Tiess, C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Express 23, 19634 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Askins, M. Putnam, G. Williams, and E. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 19, 147 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Tiess, M. Rothhardt, M. Jäger, and H. Bartelt, Appl. Opt. 52, 1161 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

2016 (1)

T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

B. Burgoyne and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. Buus and E. J. Murphy, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Li and K. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 799 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Afanasiev, D.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Akulov, V.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.-U.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Askins, C.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Askins, M. Putnam, G. Williams, and E. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 19, 147 (1994).
[Crossref]

Babin, S.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartelt, H.

Becker, M.

T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burgoyne, B.

B. Burgoyne and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buus, J.

Chai, L.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, K.

S. Li and K. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 799 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chojetzki, C.

T. Tiess, C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Express 23, 19634 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Churkin, D.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Vol. 1: Basic Principles, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008).

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2016).

Fang, X.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Godbout, N.

A. Villeneuve and N. Godbout, “Tunable mode-locked laser,” U.S. patentWO2009018664 A3 (March26, 2009).

Gottschall, T.

Grudinin, A.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jäger, M.

Junaid, S.

T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kablukov, S.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2010).

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

Koo, K.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

Li, S.

S. Li and K. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 799 (1998).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

Mueller, H.-R.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murphy, E. J.

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ommer, J.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Popp, J.

Putnam, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Askins, M. Putnam, G. Williams, and E. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 19, 147 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, M.

T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Tiess, C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Express 23, 19634 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tiess, M. Rothhardt, M. Jäger, and H. Bartelt, Appl. Opt. 52, 1161 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rybakov, M.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, M.

Schuster, K.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Selvas, R.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tiess, T.

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, P.

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Unger, S.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

B. Burgoyne and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758002 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve and N. Godbout, “Tunable mode-locked laser,” U.S. patentWO2009018664 A3 (March26, 2009).

Vlasov, A.

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, G.

Wu, Y.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A.

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Lee, K. Kim, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799 (2006).

S. Li and K. Chan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 799 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Buus and E. J. Murphy, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

V. Akulov, D. Afanasiev, S. Babin, D. Churkin, S. Kablukov, M. Rybakov, and A. Vlasov, Laser Phys. 17, 124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Liu, M. Hu, X. Fang, Y. Wu, Y. Song, L. Chai, C. Wang, and A. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 44 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and H.-R. Mueller, Opt. Eng. 44, 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Tiess, S. Junaid, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, and M. Jäger, Opt. Eng. 55, 064106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, R. Selvas, J. Sahu, P. Turner, S.-U. Alam, and A. Grudinin, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Burgoyne and A. Villeneuve, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2010).

A. Villeneuve and N. Godbout, “Tunable mode-locked laser,” U.S. patentWO2009018664 A3 (March26, 2009).

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Vol. 1: Basic Principles, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008).

F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2016).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (19313 KB)      Tuning video of emission properties at OC1 and OC2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle layout of the theta ring resonator. The middle branch of the tunable laser, which is coupled to the ring structure by two circulators, includes the FBG array as spectral filter and the modulator driven by an arbitrary function generator. The modulator switches two transmission gates with variable separation τ 1 2 as the spectral tuning parameter selecting the emission wavelength λ L .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Graph depicts the tuning spectrogram plotting the emission spectra of the tunable laser at the OC1 port in an intensity grading along a scan in fine increments of τ 1 2 . Following the bright staircase-like shape of high intensity, the emission wavelength shifts in discrete steps matching the characteristics of the FBGs with a tuning range of 25 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission behavior of the laser analyzed at two output positions OC1 and OC2 for a fixed tuning parameter of τ 1 2 = 109.5    ns (FBG 3 at 1065 nm) and τ GW = 35    ns . Graphs (a) and (b) plot the emission spectra measured at OC1 and OC2, respectively. Graphs (c) and (d) highlight the averaged temporal emission properties showing a parabola-like pulse shape. The evolution of these emission characteristics with gradual tuning of τ 1 2 is highlighted in a video sequence (see Visualization 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean pulse duration τ pulse (FWHM) for all wavelength channels is plotted depending on the electrical gate width τ GW of the transmission windows of the AOM. τ pulse can be electrically tuned over a small range from about 4.5 ns to almost 15 ns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ASE background level (analyzed around 1050 nm), the spectral peak amplitude and, resulting from the difference, the spectral signal contrast are plotted, depending on T MP , whereby Δ T MP designates the mismatch to the actual resonator length. The signal contrast is maximized at Δ T MP = 0    ns due to minimized round trip losses.

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