Abstract

We have designed, built, and characterized a high-resolution objective lens that is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The lens system exploits the principle of the Weierstrass sphere solid immersion lens to reach a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.92. Tailored to the requirements of optical lattice experiments, the objective lens features a relatively long working distance of 150 μm. Our two-lens design is remarkably insensitive to mechanical tolerances in spite of the large NA. Additionally, we demonstrate the application of a tapered optical fiber tip, as used in scanning near-field optical microscopy, to measure the point spread function (PSF) of a high NA optical system. From the PSF, we infer the wavefront aberration for the entire field of view of about 75 μm. Pushing the NA of an optical system to its ultimate limit enables novel applications in quantum technologies such as quantum control of atoms in optical microtraps with an unprecedented spatial resolution and photon collection efficiency.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High-resolution ex vacuo objective for cold atom experiments

Xiao Li, Feng Zhou, Min Ke, Peng Xu, Xiao-Dong He, Jin Wang, and Ming-Sheng Zhan
Appl. Opt. 57(26) 7584-7590 (2018)

Lens-free phase shifting imaging for cold atoms

Chih-Yuan Huang, Hung-Shiue Chen, Chih-Yuan Liu, Chin-Han Chen, and D. J. Han
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(1) 87-95 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Ott, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 054401 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Yoder, Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2015), Vol. 1, pp. 95–186.
  17. W. Alt, Optik 113, 142 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Cesium atoms (852  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/8fd4fe1a21d51b528312 .
  22. P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).
  23. R. Juškaitis, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006), pp. 239–250.
  24. E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Obermüller and K. Karrai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).
  27. S. U. Hwang and Y. G. Lee, Opt. Express 16, 21170 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Rubidium atoms (780  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/dac044b1e32b8b72e99c .
  30. C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Lithium atoms (671  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/571952db3cca10050545 .
  31. C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Strontium atoms (461  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/433a50f4d07b2a82d59b .
  32. C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Ytterbium atoms (399  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/e1b9e2ba8b03afda2a51 .

2017 (1)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

2016 (6)

H. Ott, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 054401 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2002 (1)

W. Alt, Optik 113, 142 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Obermüller and K. Karrai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, H.

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alberti, A.

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alt, W.

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Alt, Optik 113, 142 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asbóth, J. K.

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baba, M.

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bakr, W. S.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Blatt, S.

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bloch, I.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boll, M.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

Brakhane, S.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bruce, G. D.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carr, A. W.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheneau, M.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheuk, L. W.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. S.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corcovilos, T. A.

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cotta, D. A.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elings, V. B.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[Crossref]

Endres, M.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fölling, S.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fukuhara, T.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gersdorf, T.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghislain, L. P.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gillen, J. I.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

Greif, D.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greiner, M.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

Groh, T.

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gross, C.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haller, E.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hilker, T. A.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirota, K.

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huber, F.

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hudson, J.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S. U.

Isenhower, L.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, G.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jo, J. S.

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

Juškaitis, R.

R. Juškaitis, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006), pp. 239–250.

Karrai, K.

C. Obermüller and K. Karrai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

Karski, M.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kleinlein, K.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, J.

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kolb, G.

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kuhr, S.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuno, T.

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. G.

Lichtman, M.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Lompe, T.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mahmoodian, S.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Maller, K.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazurenko, A.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meschede, D.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milster, T. D.

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nichols, M. A.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Obermüller, C.

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Obermüller and K. Karrai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Okan, M.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Omran, A.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ott, H.

H. Ott, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 054401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Parsons, M. F.

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peaudecerf, B.

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, A.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pichler, H.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Piotrowicz, M. J.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramasesh, V. V.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Reimann, R.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robens, C.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Saffman, M.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Salomon, G.

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schauß, P.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schneeweiss, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Setiawan, W.

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sherson, J. F.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shimura, K.

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stobbe, S.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Takahashi, Y.

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Volz, J.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, D. S.

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weitenberg, C.

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Widera, A.

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

Wooley-Brown, K.

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-Y.

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, T.

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, R.

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P.

P. Yoder, Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2015), Vol. 1, pp. 95–186.

Yoshita, M.

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

Zwierlein, M. W.

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Obermüller and K. Karrai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3408 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Baba, T. Sasaki, M. Yoshita, and H. Akiyama, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6923 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Shimura, T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 897 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

E. Haller, J. Hudson, A. Kelly, D. A. Cotta, B. Peaudecerf, G. D. Bruce, and S. Kuhr, Nat. Phys. 11, 738 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, J. F. Sherson, M. Cheneau, P. Schauß, T. Fukuhara, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 471, 319 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, Nature 462, 74 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. Sherson, C. Weitenberg, M. Endres, M. Cheneau, I. Bloch, and S. Kuhr, Nature 467, 68 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, Nature 541, 473 (2017).

New. J. Phys. (2)

A. Alberti, C. Robens, W. Alt, S. Brakhane, M. Karski, R. Reimann, A. Widera, and D. Meschede, New. J. Phys. 18, 053010 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yamamoto, J. Kobayashi, T. Kuno, K. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, New. J. Phys. 18, 023016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Optik (1)

W. Alt, Optik 113, 142 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Groh, S. Brakhane, W. Alt, D. Meschede, J. K. Asbóth, and A. Alberti, Phys. Rev. A 94, 013620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. F. Parsons, F. Huber, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, W. Setiawan, K. Wooley-Brown, S. Blatt, and M. Greiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 213002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, T. A. Corcovilos, A. Kumar, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043003 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, M. Lichtman, K. Maller, A. W. Carr, M. J. Piotrowicz, L. Isenhower, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 100503 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Cheuk, M. A. Nichols, M. Okan, T. Gersdorf, V. V. Ramasesh, W. S. Bakr, T. Lompe, and M. W. Zwierlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Omran, M. Boll, T. A. Hilker, K. Kleinlein, G. Salomon, I. Bloch, and C. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 263001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

H. Ott, Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 054401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

M. F. Parsons, A. Mazurenko, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, D. Greif, and M. Greiner, Science 353, 1253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, A. Kumar, T.-Y. Wu, and D. S. Weiss, Science 352, 1562 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

C. Obermüller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, and G. Abstreiter, Ultramicroscopy 61, 171 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Rubidium atoms (780  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/dac044b1e32b8b72e99c .

C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Lithium atoms (671  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/571952db3cca10050545 .

C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Strontium atoms (461  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/433a50f4d07b2a82d59b .

C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Ytterbium atoms (399  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/e1b9e2ba8b03afda2a51 .

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

R. Juškaitis, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006), pp. 239–250.

C. Robens, “Lens system optimized for imaging Cesium atoms (852  nm),” figshare, 2016, https://osapublishing.figshare.com/s/8fd4fe1a21d51b528312 .

P. Yoder, Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2015), Vol. 1, pp. 95–186.

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Code 1       OLSO lens-design file: lens system optimized for imaging Cesium atoms (852 nm).
» Code 2       OLSO lens-design file: lens system optimized for imaging Rubidium atoms (780 nm).
» Code 3       OLSO lens-design file: lens system optimized for imaging Lithium atoms (671 nm).
» Code 4       OLSO lens-design file: lens system optimized for imaging Strontium atoms (461 nm).
» Code 5       OLSO lens-design file: lens system optimized for imaging Ytterbium atoms (399 nm).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Cutaway drawing of the objective lens: (1) Weierstrass-like lens ( Ø = 20    mm ), (2) aspheric lens ( Ø = 25    mm ), and (3) ceramic holder. For illustrative purposes, the atoms in the optical lattice in front of the objective lens are shown not to scale. (b) Fluorescence image acquired with our high NA objective lens, showing two cesium atoms trapped in adjacent lattice sites of a two-dimensional optical lattice. The positions of the optical lattice sites are indicated by the white dots, whereas the black dots correspond to the reconstructed positions of the two atoms.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical setup employed to measure the PSF. The circularly polarized light emitted from the SNOM fiber tip is collimated through the high NA objective lens and focused onto a beam-profiling CCD camera using a tube lens. (b) Two-dimensional PSF recorded with the beam profile CCD-camera. (c) Azimuthally integrated PSF for measured data (solid blue line), a fitted model based on a wavefront expansion in Zernike polynomials (dashed red line), and the same as the latter but with the defocus aberration set to zero (solid red line). The inset attests the quality of the fitted model in a logarithmic scale.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured values (blue dots) and theoretical prediction based on the objective lens design (red line) as a function of the transversally displaced point-like emitter. The region between the vertical dashed lines represents the expected field of view ( ± 38    μm ) of the objective lens in which the design Strehl ratio is above 0.8. (b)–(d) Example images of the corresponding intensity distributions at different positions of the field of view.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Key Properties of the Design of the NA = 0.92 Objective Lens a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Result of the Wavefront Fitting to the Measured PSF Expressed in Terms of Low-Order Zernike Polynomials a

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSF = | F { P ( x , y ) e i 2 π R ( x , y ) } | 2 ,

Metrics