Abstract

When building spot array binary Fourier diffractive optical elements (DOEs) having feature sizes on the order of the wavelength, we noticed remarkable variations in the experimental diffraction efficiency compared to the simulation results. Even with the use of high-cost electron beam lithography and rigorous Fourier modal method simulations, there appear to be no publications, to the best of our knowledge, showing close agreement in diffraction efficiency between the simulation and experimental results. In this Letter, we show that the diffraction symmetry of binary Fourier DOEs can be an efficient and consistent metric for evaluating the limit of the thin-element approximation and the effects of fabrication errors.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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