Abstract

We report the characteristics of a 1 W hollow-core fiber gas laser emitting CW in the mid-IR. Our system is based on an acetylene-filled hollow-core optical fiber guiding with low losses at both the pump and laser wavelengths and operating in the single-pass amplified spontaneous emission regime. Through systematic characterization of the pump absorption and output power dependence on gas pressure, fiber length, and pump intensity, we determine that the reduction of pump absorption at high pump flux and the degradation of gain performance at high gas pressure necessitate the use of increased gain fiber length for efficient lasing at higher powers. Low fiber attenuation is therefore key to efficient high-power laser operation. We demonstrate 1.1 W output power at a 3.1 μm wavelength by using a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier pump in a single-pass configuration, approximately 400 times higher CW output power than in the ring cavity previously reported.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (3)

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. A. Lane and T. J. Madden, Proc. SPIE 10083, 100831B (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Wang, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Proc. SPIE 10030, 1003013 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. A. Hassan, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Optica 3, 218 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yu and J. Knight, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4400610 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 22, 21872 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 193 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Han, K. Freel, and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244304 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Herman, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32, 921 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alharbi, M.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baumgart, B.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bawden, N.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Belardi, W.

Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 22, 21872 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Birks, T.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bradley, T.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Campbell, N.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chafer, M.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Wang, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Proc. SPIE 10030, 1003013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Corwin, K. L.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Couny, F.

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Dadashzadeh, N.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Debord, B.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Farr, L.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fiedler, T.

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freel, K.

J. Han, K. Freel, and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gerome, F.

N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gérôme, F.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Han, K. Freel, and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hand, D. P.

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hassan, M. R.

M. Xu, F. Yu, M. R. Hassan, and J. Knight, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF2K.4.

Hassan, M. R. A.

M. R. A. Hassan, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Optica 3, 218 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heaven, M. C.

J. Han, K. Freel, and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Henderson-Sapir, O.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herman, M.

M. Herman, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32, 921 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. Volume II: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, 1945).

Jackson, S. D.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kadel, R.

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knight, J.

F. Yu and J. Knight, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4400610 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, F. Yu, M. R. Hassan, and J. Knight, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF2K.4.

Knight, J. C.

M. R. A. Hassan, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Optica 3, 218 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 22, 21872 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lane, R. A.

R. A. Lane and T. J. Madden, Proc. SPIE 10083, 100831B (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Proc. SPIE 10030, 1003013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Madden, T. J.

R. A. Lane and T. J. Madden, Proc. SPIE 10083, 100831B (2017).
[Crossref]

Maier, R. R. J.

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Malouf, A.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

Mao, C.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nampoothiri, A. V. V.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ottaway, D. J.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ratanavis, A.

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roberts, P.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, B. Debord, M. Alharbi, F. Gérôme, F. Benabid, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Lett. 40, 605 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sabert, H.

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F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

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F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
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N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
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N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
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A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. M. Jones, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Mao, N. Dadashzadeh, B. Baumgart, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, N. Campbell, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 948 (2012).
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Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 22, 21872 (2014).
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N. Dadashzadeh, M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, H. W. K. Weerasinghe, B. Debord, M. Chafer, F. Gerome, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 25, 13351 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 19, 2309 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, Opt. Express 18, 1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. Mangan, L. Farr, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 558 (2005).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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M. R. A. Hassan, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, Optica 3, 218 (2016).
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Z. Wang, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, N. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Proc. SPIE 10030, 1003013 (2016).
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R. A. Lane and T. J. Madden, Proc. SPIE 10083, 100831B (2017).
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HITRAN Database, http://hitran.org/ .

F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, A. V. Sokolov, and F. Benabid, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuM3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simulated absorption of acetylene gas in a 1.5 μm spectral region at 20°C using data from the HITRAN database [15]. For 0.6 mbar pressure, the linewidth is assumed to be decided by the Doppler broadening only. Inset: energy diagram of acetylene energy levels for 3 μm emissions when pumped at the 1.5 μm absorption band.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experiment layout of the single-pass configuration. The AR-HCF in the experiment is laid on an optical bench in loops about 1 m in diameter to remove any possible bend loss. (b) Measured spectrum of 9.6 W pump light at the output of the EDFA. Around half of the total pump power falls within a 3 nm spectral band centered at the seed wavelength. The pump line is not resolved in the measurement. (c) Measured attenuation of the AR-HCF. Inset: scanning electron microscope picture of the AR-HCF in the experiment. The fiber’s outer diameter is 199 μm, and the core diameter is 75 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic of the side-scattering measurement. An optical spectral analyzer (OSA; Yokogawa AQ6370D) is used to measure the collected side-scattering spectra. (b) Typical measured side-scattered spectra of pump light near P ( 9 ) in on-/off-resonance conditions. The ratio of peak intensities is used to represent the relative absorbed pump power. (c) Pump attenuation along the fiber length at 0.6 mbar pressure for different incident pump powers. Points showing 0 dB pump attenuation at zero distance are added rather than measured directly.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. For 15 m fiber length and various pressures: (a) incident pump power—mid-IR laser output curves, (b) absorbed pump power—mid-IR output power curves.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Summary of measured slope efficiencies and maximum absorbed pump power for two different fiber lengths as a function of acetylene pressure. Slope efficiencies in the saturation condition are not included. (b) Pump threshold for two different fiber lengths as a function of acetylene pressure.

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