Abstract

Herein, we report a kinoform phase-type lens (KPL), which is fabricated by femtosecond (fs)-laser-induced refractive index change inside sapphire crystal. By fabricating volume phase gratings in sapphire and measuring the energy ratio of the grating’s first and second diffraction orders, the refractive index change in sapphire induced by fs-laser modification was obtained. Then a four-level KPL was designed and fabricated inside sapphire following the experimentally established scaling of the refractive index change and fs-laser power. Importantly, the KPL has unique UV focusing and imaging capability as well as a stable optical performance in different refractive index environments. The KPL embedded in sapphire has the same optical performance after a high-temperature (1050°C) annealing for 30 min. The KPLs in sapphire have great potential to increase light extraction efficiency in GaN blue-UV light-emitting diodes and can be used in micro-optical sensor applications in chemically harsh and high-temperature environments.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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